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We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in(More)
Wide spread variation in measurement results of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) confounds international efforts to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines. Accordingly, NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) in collaboration with CDC National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Ghent(More)
The genomic sequences encoding the human lysosomal acid lipase/cholesteryl esterase (sterol esterase; EC 3.1.1.13) have been isolated and sequenced, and the information has been used to identify mutations in both alleles of the gene from a patient with Wolman disease, an autosomal recessive lysosomal lipid storage disorder. The genomic locus consists of 10(More)
A defect in intracellular uptake of carnitine has been identified in patients with severe carnitine deficiency. To define the clinical manifestations of this disorder, the presenting features of 15 affected infants and children were examined. Progressive cardiomyopathy, with or without chronic muscle weakness, was the most common presentation (median age of(More)
The heritability of Type A behavior and other cardiovascular risk factors was investigated in twin school-age children. The purpose was to differentiate those risk factors that have the potential to respond to environmental and life-style changes. The sample consisted of 71 monozygotic and 34 same-sex, dizygotic twin pairs 6 to 11 years old residing in the(More)
A dozen separate inherited disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation have been described in humans. This represents about half of the potential sites for genetic error that can affect this important pathway of energy metabolism. As the characterization of these disorders at the clinical and biochemical levels has progressed rapidly, so has the(More)
We prepared monospecific antiserum in rabbits against medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) purified from rat liver and studied the biosynthesis of MCAD in cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with MCAD deficiency using the antibody. Cells were incubated with [35S]methionine. The labeled MCAD was immunoprecipitated using the anti-rat MCAD antiserum(More)
Genetic deficiency of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase activity was demonstrated in cultured fibroblasts from a 2-yr-old female whose early postnatal life was complicated by poor feeding, emesis, and failure to thrive. She demonstrated progressive skeletal muscle weakness and developmental delay. Her plasma total carnitine level (35 nmol/ml)(More)
We sequenced polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified variant medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) cDNAs in cultured fibroblasts from three MCAD-deficient patients. In all three patients, an A to G transition was identified at position 985 of the coding region. Since no appropriate restriction sites for detecting this point mutation were found, we(More)