Paul M Chaikin

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particle at position x after time t with the particle located for t 5 0 at x 5 0. In Fig. 3A, we show the result of p(x, t) for G 5 4 at four different times, which are all greater than tc. Self-diffusion of particles causes p(x, t) to broaden with time. Despite the simplicity of the physical situation describing SF conditions, theoretical treatment remains(More)
The bacterium Listeria monocytogenes uses the energy of the actin polymerization to propel itself through infected tissues. In steady state, it continuously adds new polymerized filaments to its surface, pushing on its tail, which is made from previously cross-linked actin filaments. In this paper we introduce an elastic model to describe how the addition(More)
Packing problems, such as how densely objects can fill a volume, are among the most ancient and persistent problems in mathematics and science. For equal spheres, it has only recently been proved that the face-centered cubic lattice has the highest possible packing fraction phi=pi/18 approximately 0.74. It is also well known that certain random (amorphous)(More)
Understanding self-organization is one of the key tasks for controlling and manipulating the structure of materials at the microand nanoscale. In general, self-organization is driven by interparticle potentials and is opposed by the chaotic dynamics characteristic of many driven non-equilibrium systems. Here we introduce a new model that shows how the(More)
In this Letter, we report on the densest-known packings of congruent ellipsoids. The family of new packings consists of crystal arrangements of spheroids with a wide range of aspect ratios, and with density phi always surpassing that of the densest Bravais lattice packing phi approximately equal to 0.7405. A remarkable maximum density of phi approximately(More)
Randomly moving but self-propelled agents, such as Escherichia coli bacteria, are expected to fill a volume homogeneously. However, we show that when a population of bacteria is exposed to a microfabricated wall of funnel-shaped openings, the random motion of bacteria through the openings is rectified by tracking (trapping) of the swimming bacteria along(More)
We have studied the ordering dynamics of the striped patterns of a single layer of cylindrical block copolymer microdomains in a thin film. By tracking disclinations during annealing with time-lapse atomic force microscopy, we observe a dominant mechanism of disclination annihilation involving three or four disclinations (quadrupoles). Pairwise disclination(More)
We report biophysical experiments performed on the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, a model system to study actin-based motility. Using optical tweezers and electrophoresis experiments, we find that the bacterium is firmly attached to its tail, and we demonstrate that the tail responds as an elastic gel when deformed. We have measured its elastic modulus(More)
Spontaneous formation of colonies of bacteria or flocks of birds are examples of self-organization in active living matter. Here, we demonstrate a form of self-organization from nonequilibrium driving forces in a suspension of synthetic photoactivated colloidal particles. They lead to two-dimensional "living crystals," which form, break, explode, and(More)
We present a technique for the directed assembly and self-assembly of micrometer-scale structures based on the control of specific DNA linkages between colloidal particles. The use of DNA links combined with polymer brushes provides an effective way to regulate the range and magnitude of addressable forces between pairs (and further combinations) of(More)