Paul L. Klarenbeek

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The immune system is able to respond to millions of antigens using adaptive receptors, including the alphabeta-T-cell receptor (TCR). Upon antigen encounter a T-cell may proliferate to produce a clone of TCR-identical cells, which develop a memory phenotype. Previous studies suggested that most memory clones are clearly expanded. In accordance, the(More)
CD70 and CD27 are costimulatory molecules that provide essential signals for the expansion and differentiation of CD8(+) T cells. Here, we show that CD27-driven costimulation lowered the threshold of T cell receptor activation on CD8(+) T cells and enabled responses against low-affinity antigens. Using influenza infection to study in vivo consequences, we(More)
While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants(More)
Despite potential clinical importance, target cells for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 have not yet been identified. Cord blood-derived CD4(+) T cells are largely naive and do not express CCR5, the mandatory coreceptor for transmitted HIV-1 R5 strains in infants. In the present study, we demonstrate that in the human fetal and infant gut mucosa,(More)
OBJECTIVE Infliximab treatment results in a decrease in synovial cellularity as early as 48 hours after initiation of therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to investigate whether infliximab induces apoptosis within the first 24 hours after infusion. METHODS The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow(More)
OBJECTIVE Whether and how B lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of spondylarthritis (SpA), a seronegative arthritis associated with gut inflammation, remains unknown. Because innate-like CD5+ B lymphocytes with regulatory functions have been identified in colitis models, we undertook the present study to analyze the presence and function of CD5+ B(More)
CD8(+) T-cell responses against latent viruses can cover considerable portions of the CD8(+) T-cell compartment for many decades, yet their initiation and maintenance remains poorly characterized in humans. A key question is whether the clonal repertoire that is raised during the initial antiviral response can be maintained over these long periods. To(More)
During infection and autoimmune disease, activation and expansion of T cells take place. Consequently, the TCR repertoire contains information about ongoing and past diseases. Analysis and interpretation of the human TCR repertoire are hampered by its size and stochastic variation and by the diversity of Ags and Ag-presenting molecules encoded by the MHC,(More)
Despite potential clinical importance, target cells for mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 have not yet been identified. Cord blood–derived CD4 T cells are largely naive and do not express CCR5, the mandatory coreceptor for transmitted HIV-1 R5 strains in infants. In the present study, we demonstrate that in the human fetal and infant gut mucosa, there(More)
Every person carries a vast repertoire of CD4+ T-helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells for a healthy immune system. Somatic VDJ recombination at genomic loci that encode the T-cell receptor (TCR) is a key step during T-cell development, but how a single T cell commits to become either CD4+ or CD8+ is poorly understood. To evaluate the influence of TCR(More)