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Translational readthrough, observed primarily in less complex organisms from viruses to Drosophila, expands the proteome by translating select transcripts beyond the canonical stop codon. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA in mammalian endothelial cells undergoes programmed translational readthrough (PTR) generating(More)
In recent studies we demonstrated that systemic levels of protein-bound nitrotyrosine (NO(2)Tyr) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), a protein that catalyzes generation of nitrating oxidants, serve as independent predictors of atherosclerotic risk, burden, and incident cardiac events. We now show both that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the primary protein constituent(More)
In most cases, translational control mechanisms result from the interaction of RNA-binding proteins with 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNA. In organisms ranging from viruses to humans, protein-mediated interactions between transcript termini result in the formation of an RNA loop. Such RNA 'circularization' is thought to increase translational(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) accompanied by cellular differentiation and migration. Despite extensive transcriptomic profiling, the identification of TGF-beta-inducible, EMT-specific genes has met with limited success. Here we identify a post-transcriptional pathway by which TGF-beta(More)
Endothelial cell (EC) migration is a critical and initiating event in the formation of new blood vessels and in the repair of injured vessels. Compelling evidence suggests that oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) is present in atherosclerotic lesions, but its role in lesion formation has not been defined. We have examined the role of oxidized LDL in(More)
Transcript-specific translational control is generally directed by binding of trans-acting proteins to structural elements in the untranslated region (UTR) of the target mRNA. Here, we elucidate a translational silencing mechanism involving regulated release of an integral ribosomal protein and subsequent binding to its target mRNA. Human ribosomal protein(More)
Ligand binding to structural elements in the non-coding regions of messenger RNA modulates gene expression. Ligands such as free metabolites or other small molecules directly bind and induce conformational changes in regulatory RNA elements known as riboswitches. Other types of RNA switches are activated by complexed metabolites-for example, RNA-ligated(More)
Individuals with hereditary ceruloplasmin (Cp) deficiency have profound iron accumulation in most tissues, which suggests that Cp is important for normal release of cellular iron. Here, in contrast to expectations, Cp was shown to increase iron uptake by HepG2 cells, increasing the apparent affinity for the substrate by three times. Consistent with its role(More)
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARS) catalyze the ligation of amino acids to cognate tRNAs. Chordate ARSs have evolved distinctive features absent from ancestral forms, including compartmentalization in a multisynthetase complex (MSC), noncatalytic peptide appendages, and ancillary functions unrelated to aminoacylation. Here, we show that glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA(More)