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Transcript-specific translational control is generally directed by binding of trans-acting proteins to structural elements in the untranslated region (UTR) of the target mRNA. Here, we elucidate a translational silencing mechanism involving regulated release of an integral ribosomal protein and subsequent binding to its target mRNA. Human ribosomal protein(More)
Translational readthrough, observed primarily in less complex organisms from viruses to Drosophila, expands the proteome by translating select transcripts beyond the canonical stop codon. Here, we show that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA in mammalian endothelial cells undergoes programmed translational readthrough (PTR) generating(More)
Viking 2 lander began imaging the surface of Mars at Utopia Planitia on 3 September 1976. The surface is a boulder-strewn reddish desert cut by troughs that probably form a polygonal network. A plateau can be seen to the east of the spacecraft, which for the most probable lander location is approximately the direction of a tongue of ejecta from the crater(More)
Posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms superimpose "fine-tuning" control upon "on-off" switches characteristic of gene transcription. We have exploited computational modeling with experimental validation to resolve an anomalous relationship between mRNA expression and protein synthesis. The GAIT (gamma-interferon-activated inhibitor of translation)(More)
Addition of actin monomer (G-actin) to growing actin filaments (F-actin) at the leading edge generates force for cell locomotion. The polymerization reaction and its regulation have been studied in depth. However, the mechanism responsible for transport of G-actin substrate to the cell front is largely unknown; random diffusion, facilitated transport via(More)
Ligand binding to structural elements in the non-coding regions of messenger RNA modulates gene expression. Ligands such as free metabolites or other small molecules directly bind and induce conformational changes in regulatory RNA elements known as riboswitches. Other types of RNA switches are activated by complexed metabolites-for example, RNA-ligated(More)
Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (ARS) catalyze the ligation of amino acids to cognate tRNAs. Chordate ARSs have evolved distinctive features absent from ancestral forms, including compartmentalization in a multisynthetase complex (MSC), noncatalytic peptide appendages, and ancillary functions unrelated to aminoacylation. Here, we show that glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA(More)
Transcript-selective translational control of eukaryotic gene expression is often directed by a structural element in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the mRNA. In the case of ceruloplasmin (Cp), induced synthesis of the protein by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in U937 monocytic cells is halted by a delayed translational silencing mechanism requiring(More)
Individuals with hereditary ceruloplasmin (Cp) deficiency have profound iron accumulation in most tissues, which suggests that Cp is important for normal release of cellular iron. Here, in contrast to expectations, Cp was shown to increase iron uptake by HepG2 cells, increasing the apparent affinity for the substrate by three times. Consistent with its role(More)