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We describe the Phase II HapMap, which characterizes over 3.1 million human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 270 individuals from four geographically diverse populations and includes 25-35% of common SNP variation in the populations surveyed. The map is estimated to capture untyped common variation with an average maximum r2 of between(More)
With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
Enteric neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate and colonize the entire gut and proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glia of the enteric nervous system in vertebrate embryos. We have investigated the mitogenic and morphogenic functions of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) on enteric NCCs in cell and organ culture. Enteric NCCs expressed Shh receptor Patched and(More)
The major gene for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) encodes the receptor tyrosine kinase RET. In a study of 690 European- and 192 Chinese-descent probands and their parents or controls, we demonstrate the ubiquity of a >4-fold susceptibility from a C-->T allele (rs2435357: p = 3.9 x 10(-43) in European ancestry; p = 1.1 x 10(-21) in Chinese samples) that(More)
Wound healing is a complex process and has been the subject of intense research for a long time. The recent emergence of nanotechnology has provided a new therapeutic modality in silver nanoparticles for use in burn wounds. Nonetheless, the beneficial effects of silver nanoparticles on wound healing remain unknown. We investigated the wound-healing(More)
BACKGROUND Many different laparoscopic techniques for pediatric inguinal hernia (PIH) have been developed, with a trend toward increasing use of extracorporeal knotting and decreasing use of working ports. Single-port laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure is one of the most simple and reliable methods. We describe our modifications of(More)
Enteric neural crest cells (NCC) are multipotent progenitors which give rise to neurons and glia of the enteric nervous system (ENS) during fetal development. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)/RET receptor tyrosine kinase (Ret) signaling is indispensable for their survival, migration and differentiation. Using microarray analysis and(More)
The quantitative comparison of two or more microarrays can reveal, for example, the distinct patterns of gene expression that define different cellular phenotypes or the genes that are induced in the cellular response to certain stimulations. Normalization of the measured intensities is a prerequisite of such comparisons. However, a fundamental problem in(More)
BACKGROUND With the advent of laparoscopic surgery, more choledochal cysts are excised laparoscopically. In this study, we compared the outcomes from laparoscopic hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) and hepaticoduodenostomy (HD) for biliary-enteric reconstruction. METHODS A retrospective analysis of patients who had undergone laparoscopic choledochal cyst excision(More)
LPS is a main causative agent of septic shock. There is a lack of effective therapies. In vitro studies have shown that uptake of apoptotic cells actively inhibits the secretion by activated macrophages (Mphi) of proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha and that such uptake increases the antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-beta. We(More)