Paul Karila

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The strength and number of nicotinic synapses that converge on secretomotor B neurons were assessed in the bullfrog by recording intracellularly from isolated preparations of paravertebral sympathetic ganglia 9 and 10. One input to every B neuron invariably produced a suprathreshold EPSP and was defined as the primary nicotinic synapse. In addition, 93% of(More)
The presence of galanin-like immunoreactivity in nerves to the stomach of the Atlantic cod has been investigated by immunohistochemistry. The distribution of ganglion cells showing galanin-like immunoreactivity was compared with the total distribution in nerves and ganglia. Projection studies were made to determine the origin of the galanin neurons. The(More)
The projections of enteric neurons showing immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and galanin were investigated in the myenteric plexus of the intestine of the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. Quantification of immunoreactive material on the proximal and distal side of a myotomy was performed by means of confocal(More)
The two aortas of the crocodile are in open connection at two sites, the foramen of Panizzae immediately outside the ventricles, and the arterial anastomosis at the level of the gut. The present study was performed to elucidate the innervation of the cardiovascular structures of the crocodile, in part to provide a further basis for the assumption that the(More)
The native tachykinins cod neurokinin A and cod substance P, serotonin and acetylcholine have excitatory effects on the circular smooth muscle of the cod intestine. Furthermore, immunoreactivities to the cod tachykinins, serotonin and two markers for cholinergic neurones, viz. choline acetyltransferase and vesicular acetylcholine transporter, have been(More)
AZ465 is a novel selective transient receptor potential cation channel, member A1 (TRPA1) antagonist identified during a focused drug discovery effort. In vitro, AZ465 fully inhibits activation by zinc, O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS), or cinnamaldehyde of the human TRPA1 channel heterologously expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Our data(More)
The innervation of the cod stomach by neurons showing substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI), and the effect and mechanism of action of substance P (SP) on the vascularly perfused cod stomach and on isolated muscle strip preparations from the pyloric sphincter have been investigated.Infusion of SP produced a contraction of the stomach wall, which could(More)
In this study retrograde tracing was used to locate sympathetic ganglion cells innervating the stomach of a teleost fish, Gadus morhua. A subpopulation of small neurons in the coeliac ganglion was retrogradely labelled after Fast Blue injection in the stomach wall. Neurons projecting to the myenteric plexus and muscle layers contained tyrosine hydroxylase(More)
We used intracellular dye injection to examine the dendritic morphology of postganglionic neurons in the coeliac ganglion of goldfish. About 80% of the neurons had at least one dendrite, with the mean number of dendrites per cell being 7.8 +/- 5.5 (+/- SD, n = 37 cells). Dendrites varied in length from a few microns to more than 400 microns. Around 37% of(More)
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