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Data have been tabulated from more than 150 references on the solubility of inert gases in fluids and tissues of biological interest. Thirty-two gases have been studied in blood with measured solubility ranging from 0.005 to 16 ml of gas at 37 degrees C per ml of blood per ATA (Ostwald coefficient). For most gases, solubility in other tissues such as muscle(More)
The occurrence of decompression sickness in animals and humans is characterized by the extreme variability of individual response. Nevertheless, models and analyses of decompression results have generally used a critical value approach to separate safe and unsafe decompression procedures. Application of the principle of maximum likelihood provides a formal(More)
To plan for any future rescue of personnel in a disabled and pressurized submarine, the US Navy needs a method for predicting risk of decompression sickness under possible scenarios for crew recovery. Such scenarios include direct ascent from compressed air exposures with risks too high for ethical human experiments. Animal data, however, with their(More)
The general solvation equation log L = c + rR2 + pi H2 + a alpha H2 + b beta H2 + l log L16 has been used to analyze the solubility of solute gases and vapors, as log L values, in water, blood, and a variety of other biological fluids and tissues. The explanatory variables are R2, the solute excess molar refraction; pi H2, the solute(More)
Probabilistic models and maximum likelihood estimation have been used to predict the occurrence of decompression sickness (DCS). We indicate a means of extending the maximum likelihood parameter estimation procedure to make use of knowledge of the time at which DCS occurs. Two models were compared in fitting a data set of nearly 1,000 exposures, in which(More)
Using a data base of 2,383 air and nitrogen-oxygen dives resulting in 131 cases of decompression sickness (DCS), risk functions were developed for a set of probabilistic decompression models according to survival analysis techniques. Parameters were optimized using the method of maximum likelihood Gas kinetics were either traditional exponential uptake and(More)
The method of maximum likelihood analysis was applied to data consisting of 1,949 man-dives, of which 1,041 were on air and 908 were on HeO2 mixtures. These dives represented a wide range of bottom time and depth combinations, and had an overall incidence of decompression sickness (DCS) of 4.64%. Several models, based on single exponential gas uptake in(More)
A probabilistic model was used to predict decompression sickness (DCS) outcome in pigs during exposures to hyperbaric H(2) to quantify the effects of H(2) biochemical decompression, a process in which metabolism of H(2) by intestinal microbes facilitates decompression. The data set included 109 exposures to 22-26 atm, ca. 88% H(2), 9% He, 2% O(2), 1% N(2),(More)
We developed a swine model to describe the untreated natural history of severe decompression sickness (DCS) after direct ascent from saturation conditions. In a recompression chamber, neutered male Yorkshire swine were pressurized to a predetermined depth from 50-150 feet of seawater [fsw; 2.52-5.55 atmospheres absolute (ATA)]. After 22 h, they returned to(More)
Solubilities of a range of nonelectrolyte solutes in biological systems, such as blood, plasma, brain, lung, liver, kidney, muscle tissue, and human fat, are correlated and predicted through an equation that takes the form log Ltissue = c + w log Lwater + o log Loil, where L is the Ostwald solubility coefficient (or gas/liquid partition coefficient). The(More)