Paul K. Kienker

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Colicin Ia, a bacterial protein toxin of 626 amino acid residues, forms voltage-dependent channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes. We have exploited the high affinity binding of streptavidin to biotin to map the topology of the channel-forming domain (roughly 175 residues of the COOH-terminal end) with respect to the membrane. That is, we have(More)
Colicin Ia, a 626-residue bactericidal protein, consists of three domains, with the carboxy-terminal domain (C domain) responsible for channel formation. Whole colicin Ia or C domain added to a planar lipid bilayer membrane forms voltage-gated channels. We have shown previously that the channel formed by whole colicin Ia has four membrane-spanning segments(More)
The differentiation of figure from ground plays an important role in the perceptual organization of visual stimuli. The rapidity with which we can discriminate the inside from the outside of a figure suggests that at least this step in the process may be performed in visual cortex by a large number of neurons in several different areas working together in(More)
Learning to recognize mirror, rotational and translational symmetries is a difficult problem for massively-parallel network models. These symmetries cannot be learned by first-order perceptrons or Hopfield networks, which have no means for incorporating additional adaptive units that are hidden from the input and output layers. We demonstrate that the(More)
Low pH triggers the translocation domain of diphtheria toxin (T-domain), which contains 10 α helices, to insert into a planar lipid bilayer membrane, form a transmembrane channel, and translocate the attached catalytic domain across the membrane. Three T-domain helices, corresponding to TH5, TH8, and TH9 in the aqueous crystal structure, form transmembrane(More)
The bacterial toxin colicin Ia forms voltage-gated channels in planar lipid bilayers. The toxin consists of three domains, with the carboxy-terminal domain (C-domain) responsible for channel formation. The C-domain contributes four membrane-spanning segments and a 68-residue translocated segment to the open channel, whereas the upstream domains and the(More)
Some of the bactericidal proteins known as colicins exert their toxic action by forming a large, nonselective channel in the inner membrane of target bacteria. The structure of this channel is unknown. It conducts large ions but has a much smaller conductance than would be expected for a channel of its deduced size. Here we report that the colicin channel,(More)
Colicin Ia is a bactericidal protein of 626 amino acid residues that kills its target cell by forming a channel in the inner membrane; it can also form voltage-dependent channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes. The channel-forming activity resides in the carboxy-terminal domain of approximately 177 residues. In the crystal structure of the water-soluble(More)
Anthrax toxin is composed of three proteins: a translocase heptameric channel, (PA(63))(7), formed from protective antigen (PA), which allows the other two proteins, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), to translocate across a host cell's endosomal membrane, disrupting cellular homeostasis. (PA(63))(7) incorporated into planar phospholipid bilayer(More)