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Colicin Ia, a bacterial protein toxin of 626 amino acid residues, forms voltage-dependent channels in planar lipid bilayer membranes. We have exploited the high affinity binding of streptavidin to biotin to map the topology of the channel-forming domain (roughly 175 residues of the COOH-terminal end) with respect to the membrane. That is, we have(More)
Colicin Ia, a 626-residue bactericidal protein, consists of three domains, with the carboxy-terminal domain (C domain) responsible for channel formation. Whole colicin Ia or C domain added to a planar lipid bilayer membrane forms voltage-gated channels. We have shown previously that the channel formed by whole colicin Ia has four membrane-spanning segments(More)
We are designing simple peptide ion channels as model systems for the study of the physical principles controlling conduction through ion-channel proteins. Here we report on an uncharged peptide, Ac-(Leu-Ser-Ser-Leu-Leu-Ser-Leu)3-CONH2, designed to form an aggregate of parallel, amphiphilic, membrane-spanning alpha-helices around a central water-filled(More)
The differentiation of figure from ground plays an important role in the perceptual organization of visual stimuli. The rapidity with which we can discriminate the inside from the outside of a figure suggests that at least this step in the process may be performed in visual cortex by a large number of neurons in several different areas working together in(More)
Colicin Ia is a bactericidal protein that forms voltage-dependent, ion-conducting channels, both in the inner membrane of target bacteria and in planar bilayer membranes. Its amino acid sequence is rich in charged residues, except for a hydrophobic segment of 40 residues near the carboxyl terminus. In the crystal structure of colicin Ia and related(More)
Colicin Ia is a 69 kDa protein that kills susceptible Escherichia coli cells by binding to a specific receptor in the outer membrane, colicin I receptor (70 kDa), and subsequently translocating its channel forming domain across the periplasmic space, where it inserts into the inner membrane and forms a voltage-dependent ion channel. We determined crystal(More)
Certain bacterial protein toxins are able to insert themselves into, and at least partially across, lipid bilayer membranes in the absence of any auxiliary proteins, by using unknown mechanisms to overcome the high energy barrier presented by the hydrophobic bilayer core. We have previously shown that one such toxin, colicin Ia, translocates a large,(More)
The diphtheria toxin T domain translocates the catalytic C domain across the endosomal membrane in response to acidification. To elucidate the role of histidine protonation in modulating pH-dependent membrane action of the T domain, we have used site-directed mutagenesis coupled with spectroscopic and physiological assays. Replacement of H257 with an(More)
The translocation (T) domain plays a key role in the action of diphtheria toxin and is responsible for transferring the N-terminus-attached catalytic domain across the endosomal membrane into the cytosol in response to acidification. The T-domain undergoes a series of pH-triggered conformational changes that take place in solution and on the membrane(More)
Charge selectivity in ion channel proteins is not fully understood. We have studied charge selectivity in a simple model system without charged groups, in which an amphiphilic helical peptide, Ac-(Leu-Ser-Ser-Leu-Leu-Ser-Leu)3-CONH2, forms ion channels across an uncharged phospholipid membrane. We find these channels to conduct both K+ and Cl-, with a(More)