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Early life stress (ES) increases vulnerability to psychopathology and impairs cognition in adulthood. These ES-induced deficits are associated with lasting changes in hippocampal plasticity. Detailed information on the neurobiological basis, the onset, and progression of such changes and their sex-specificity is currently lacking but is required to tailor(More)
Even though in vivo imaging studies document significant reductions of hippocampal volume in depressed patients, the exact underlying cellular mechanisms are unclear. Since stressful life events are associated with an increased risk of developing depression, preclinical studies in which animals are exposed to chronic stress have been used to understand the(More)
Neurogenesis and apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) occur during development and adulthood. However, little is known about how these two processes relate to each other during aging. In this study, we examined apoptosis, proliferation, migration, and survival of newborn cells in the young (2 weeks), young-adult (6 weeks), middle-aged (12(More)
Acute stress suppresses new cell birth in the hippocampus in several species. Relatively little is known, however, on how chronic stress affects the turnover, i.e. proliferation and apoptosis, of the rat dentate gyrus (DG) cells, and whether the stress effects are lasting. We investigated how 3 weeks of chronic unpredictable stress would influence the(More)
The human hypothalamus is involved in a wide range of functions in the developing, adult and aging subject and is responsible for a large number of symptoms of neuroendocrine, neurological and psychiatric diseases. In the present review some prominent hypothalamic nuclei are discussed in relation to normal development, sexual differentiation, aging and a(More)
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a once unorthodox concept, has changed into one of the most rapidly growing fields in neuroscience. The present report results from the ECNP targeted expert meeting in 2007 during which cellular plasticity changes were addressed in the adult brain, focusing on neurogenesis and apoptosis in hippocampus and frontal cortex. We(More)
Adult proliferation and hippocampal neurogenesis are stimulated by injury. In agreement, aberrant cell-cycle-related protein expression has been reported in senile Alzheimer's disease (AD), where the hippocampus is particularly affected. Recently, increased expression of doublecortin (DCX), a neurogenesis marker, was reported in senile AD. Here, we(More)
Early life stress increases the risk for developing stress-related pathologies later in life. Recent studies in rats suggest that mild early life stress, rather than being overall unfavorable, may program the hippocampus such that it is optimally adapted to a stressful context later in life. Here, we tested whether this principle of "adaptive programming"(More)
In rodents, stress suppresses adult neurogenesis. This is thought to involve activation of glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. In the present study, we therefore questioned whether glucocorticoid receptor blockade by mifepristone can normalize the effects of chronic stress on adult neurogenesis. Rats received mifepristone on the last 4 days of a 21-day(More)
Imaging studies have consistently documented hippocampal volume reductions in depression. Although depressive disorders are traditionally considered to have a neurochemical basis, recent studies suggest that impairments of structural plasticity contribute to the volume reductions and the related cognitive changes. This might result from repeated periods of(More)