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The vertebrate homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are related to the Drosophila msh gene and are expressed in a variety of tissues during embryogenesis. We have examined their expression by in situ hybridisation during critical stages of cardiac development in the chick from stages 15+ to 37. Msx-1 expression is apparent in a number of non-myocardial cell(More)
Based on chromosomal mapping data, we recently revealed an unexpected linkage of troponin genes in the human genome: the six genes encoding striated muscle troponin I and troponin T isoforms are located at three chromosomal sites, each of which carries a troponin I-troponin T gene pair. Here we have investigated the organization of these genes at the DNA(More)
We have used antibodies specific for troponin I proteins to examine human cardiac development and have detected a transiently expressed developmental isoform. This isoform is distinct from adult cardiac troponin I (TnIc) but is indistinguishable, on the basis of electrophoretic mobility and antibody reactivity, from the isoform found in slow skeletal muscle(More)
We have localized the gene encoding the fast skeletal muscle isoform of troponin I (TNNI2) to 11p15.5 by PCR-based analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels: based on the Genebridge4 radiation hybrid panel, TNNI2 is coincident with the marker D11S922. The gene encoding the fast skeletal muscle troponin T gene (TNNT3) has been previously assigned to 11p15.5(More)
Recent reports have demonstrated the presence of two isoforms of troponin I in the human fetal heart, namely, cardiac troponin I and slow skeletal muscle troponin I. Structural and physiological considerations indicate that these isoforms would confer differing contractile properties on the myocardium, particularly on the phosphorylation-mediated regulation(More)
Troponin T, which links the troponin complex to tropomyosin, is found as multiple isoforms in the hearts of many animal species. Changes in isoform composition have been correlated with variation in myofilament sensitivity to calcium. In order to determine the origin of diversity of the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) isoforms indicated by existing protein data,(More)
Mammalian cardiac muscle contains two myosin alkali light chains which are the major isoforms present in either atrial (MLC1A) or ventricular (MLC1V) muscle, and which are different from the fast skeletal muscle isoforms (MLC1F and MLC3F). The atrial isoform is also expressed in fetal skeletal and fetal ventricular muscle, where this isoform is also(More)
The human cardiac troponin I (TnIc) gene exhibits both cardiac-specific and developmentally regulated expression. The structure and expression of this gene as well as the identification of putative regulatory elements have been described previously. This study shows that a minimal promoter containing 98 bp of sequence is sufficient to drive transcription in(More)
Troponin I (TnI) is a constituent protein of the troponin complex located on the thin filament of striated muscle that provides a calcium-sensitive switch for striated muscle contraction. Unlike other contractile proteins, the cardiac isoform of troponin I (TnIc) is expressed only in cardiac muscle and therefore offers a model for cardiac-specific(More)