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The adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) expanded in interleukin-2 (IL-2) to mice bearing micrometastases from various types of tumors showed that TIL are 50 to 100 times more effective in their therapeutic potency than are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. Therefore the use of TIL was explored for the treatment of mice with(More)
The cloning of the genes encoding cancer antigens has opened new possibilities for the treatment of patients with cancer. In this study, immunodominant peptides from the gp100 melanoma-associated antigen were identified, and a synthetic peptide, designed to increase binding to HLA-A2 molecules, was used as a cancer vaccine to treat patients with metastatic(More)
Many tumor-associated antigens are derived from nonmutated "self" proteins. T cells infiltrating tumor deposits recognize self-antigens presented by tumor cells and can be expanded in vivo with vaccination. These T cells exist in a functionally tolerant state, as they rarely result in tumor eradication. We found that tumor growth and lethality were(More)
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes from six patients with metastatic malignant melanoma were expanded by culture in recombinant interleukin 2. Three of the preparations were highly cytotoxic against autologous fresh melanoma tumor cells, but not against autologous fresh normal cells or allogeneic fresh tumor targets. The other three were highly cytotoxic(More)
Depletion of immune elements before adoptive cell transfer (ACT) can dramatically improve the antitumor efficacy of transferred CD8+ T cells, but the specific mechanisms that contribute to this enhanced immunity remain poorly defined. Elimination of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (T reg) cells has been proposed as a key mechanism by which lymphodepletion augments(More)
IL-15 and IL-2 possess similar properties, including the ability to induce T cell proliferation. However, whereas IL-2 can promote apoptosis and limit CD8(+) memory T cell survival and proliferation, IL-15 helps maintain a memory CD8(+) T cell population and can inhibit apoptosis. We sought to determine whether IL-15 could enhance the in vivo function of(More)
A method was described for the generation of cells from tumor-bearing mice; these cells were capable of exhibiting significant antitumor reactivity when adoptively transferred into tumor-bearing hosts. Tumor cell suspensions from a variety of tumors were able to be separated using enzymatic techniques and they were cultured in medium containing recombinant(More)
Incubation of resting lymphoid cells with recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) in vitro leads to the generation of lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells capable of lysing fresh tumor cell suspensions in short-term chromium-release assays. Our previous studies (7) have demonstrated that the injection of LAK cells plus low doses of recombinant IL-2 were capable(More)
Patients with metastatic melanoma were immunized with an immunodominant peptide derived from the gp100 melanoma-melanocyte differentiation Ag that was modified to increase binding to HLA-A+0201. A total of 10 of 11 patients who received the g209-2M peptide alone developed precursors reactive with the native g209 peptide, compared with only 5 of 16 patients(More)
To be recognized by CD8+ T lymphocytes, target cells must process and present peptide antigens in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The nonimmunogenic, low class I-expressing, methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced murine sarcoma cell line, MCA 101, is a poor presenter of endogenously generated viral antigens to specific(More)