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The addition of iron to high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions induces phytoplankton blooms that take up carbon. Carbon export from the surface layer and, in particular, the ability of the ocean and sediments to sequester carbon for many years remains, however, poorly quantified. Here we report data from the CROZEX experiment in the Southern Ocean, which(More)
Antarctic ice-core data reveal that the atmosphere experienced abrupt centennial increases in CO2 concentration during the last deglaciation (~18 thousand to 11 thousand years ago). Establishing the role of ocean circulation in these changes requires high-resolution, accurately dated marine records. Here, we report radiocarbon data from(More)
In tissues that closely approximate bone, sufficient heat may be transferred to the bone during laser surgery to cause damage and/or necrosis. To date, there have been few studies examining the temperatures elicited at the bone surface as a result of laser application to the overlying soft tissues. The purpose of this investigation was to determine, under(More)
The paleontological record of the lower and middle Paleozoic Appalachian foreland basin demonstrates an unprecedented level of ecological and morphological stability on geological time scales. Some 70-80% of fossil morphospecies within assemblages persist in similar relative abundances in coordinated packages lasting as long as 7 million years despite(More)
The paired pallial organs of pleurotomariids (slit shells) are generally interpreted as representing the primitive gastropod condition. Relatively few individual pleurotomariids have been observed alive; most anatomical descriptions have been based on retracted, preserved material. In this study, live animals were observed in still and moving water,(More)
A high-power diode laser bar coupling scheme with rectangular optical fibers is proposed, and the concept is tested on a scale version: an individual diode laser array and a single rectangular fiber. 60% of the power from a 1-W cw, 213-µm-wide 20-stripe diode array is coupled into a 216 µm × 28 µm 0.66 numerical aperture optical fiber, which produces(More)
The results of numerical simulations using the Nonlinear Disturbance Equations (NLDE) for viscous test cases in laminar flow are presented. The NLDE are implemented in a two-dimensional, finite volume code to test the algorithm's properties for viscous, wall-bounded flows. Testing focused on the accuracy of unsteady phenomena. An overview of the method,(More)
We document a two-year experimental trial of a recently-developed integrated peat-harvesting and reclamation technique at a poor fen in northern Ontario, Canada. We removed and conserved the uppermost ~0.3 m of peat in blocks while deeper peat was harvested from the resultant pit. We allowed the extraction pit to flood with shallow groundwater, and then(More)
A coding error in the Monte Carlo procedure for the determination of critical values in running correlation analysis (presented in Supplementary Data S8) has been brought to the attention of the authors. The code should read: x<-rnorm(n) res<-replicate(1000, { y<-rnorm(n) z<​-max(running(x,y,​fun=​ cor,​width=​ 10))#​find​maximum​correlation })(More)