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If reward-associated cues acquire the properties of incentive stimuli they can come to powerfully control behavior, and potentially promote maladaptive behavior. Pavlovian incentive stimuli are defined as stimuli that have three fundamental properties: they are attractive, they are themselves desired, and they can spur instrumental actions. We have found,(More)
Individuals vary considerably in the extent to which they attribute incentive salience to food-associated cues. We asked whether individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to a food cue are also prone to attribute incentive properties to a stimulus associated with a drug of abuse—cocaine. We first identified those rats that attributed incentive(More)
Some rats [sign-trackers (STs)] are especially prone to attribute incentive salience to reward cues, relative to others [goal-trackers (GTs)]. Thus, reward cues are more likely to promote maladaptive reward-seeking behavior in STs than GTs. Here, we asked whether STs and GTs differ on another trait that can contribute to poor restraint over behavior evoked(More)
Neuroanatomical research suggests that interactions between dopamine and glutamate within the mesolimbic dopamine system are involved in both drug-induced locomotor stimulation and addiction. Therefore, genetically determined differences in the locomotor responses to ethanol and cocaine may be related to differences in the effects of these drugs on this(More)
RATIONALE Morphine relieves pain, in part, by acting on neurons within the periaqueductal gray (PAG). Given that the PAG contains a subpopulation of dopamine neurons, dopamine may contribute to the antinociceptive effects mediated by the PAG. METHODS This hypothesis was tested by measuring the behavioral and electrophysiological effects of administering(More)
A localized precipitation network has been established over a 4000 km 2 region of northern Alabama in support of local weather and climate research at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center (GHCC) in Huntsville. This Cooperative Huntsville-Area Rainfall Measurement (CHARM) network is comprised of over 80 volunteers who manually take daily rainfall(More)
RATIONALE The literature offers many examples of tolerance to ethanol's inhibitory/depressant effects and sensitization to its activating effects. There are also many examples of tolerance to ethanol's aversive effects as measured in the conditioned taste aversion and conditioned place aversion (CPA) procedures. However, there are very few demonstrations of(More)
BACKGROUND Sensitivity to erthanol's locomotor activating and reinforcing effects may be influenced by some common neural mechanisms. Mice selectively bred in replicate for increased (FAST-1 and FAST-2) and decreased (SLOW-1 and SLOW-2) sensitivity to ethanol's locomotor stimulant effects are useful for investigating the neural substrates of ethanol's(More)
The relationship between the effects of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK-801 on acute responses to ethanol and its ability to block ethanol sensitization and tolerance was examined in DBA/2J mice. Cross-sensitization between these drugs was also studied. Repeated administration of 0.1 mg/kg MK-801 with ethanol potentiated, whereas 0.25 mg/kg(More)
There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which food- and drug-associated cues (conditioned stimuli, CSs) acquire incentive salience, as indicated by whether they elicit approach towards them, and/or act as conditioned reinforcers. Here we asked whether this variation is influenced by properties of the CS itself. In rats, we assessed both(More)