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This document is the report of a task group of the AAPM and has been prepared primarily to advise medical physicists involved in the external-beam radiation therapy of patients with thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic tumors affected by respiratory motion. This report describes the magnitude of respiratory motion, discusses radiotherapy specific problems caused(More)
Task Group 101 of the AAPM has prepared this report for medical physicists, clinicians, and therapists in order to outline the best practice guidelines for the external-beam radiation therapy technique referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The task group report includes a review of the literature to identify reported clinical findings(More)
Four-dimensional (4D) methods strive to achieve highly conformal radiotherapy, particularly for lung and breast tumours, in the presence of respiratory-induced motion of tumours and normal tissues. Four-dimensional radiotherapy accounts for respiratory motion during imaging, planning and radiation delivery, and requires a 4D CT image in which the internal(More)
In the era of conformal therapy and intensity-modulated therapy, there is an increased desire to raise tumor dose to facilitate improved survival and decrease normal tissue dose to reduce treatment-related complications. Setup accuracy and internal motion limit our ability to reduce margins. Internal motion has both interfraction and intrafraction(More)
This study develops and tests a method to compute dosimetric images for an amorphous silicon (a-Si) flat-panel detector so that an accurate quantitative comparison between measured and computed portal images may be made. An EGS4-based Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm is developed to efficiently tally the energy deposition through the use of a virtual detector(More)
The aim of this work was to quantify the ability to predict intrafraction diaphragm motion from an external respiration signal during a course of radiotherapy. The data obtained included diaphragm motion traces from 63 fluoroscopic lung procedures for 5 patients, acquired simultaneously with respiratory motion signals (an infrared camera-based system was(More)
Four-dimensional (4D) radiotherapy is the explicit inclusion of the temporal changes in anatomy during the imaging, planning, and delivery of radiotherapy. One key component of 4D radiotherapy planning is the ability to automatically ("auto") create contours on all of the respiratory phase computed tomography (CT) datasets comprising a 4D CT scan, based on(More)
Respiration-gated radiotherapy for tumor sites affected by respiratory motion will potentially improve radiotherapy outcomes by allowing reduced treatment margins leading to decreased complication rates and/or increased tumor control. Furthermore, for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), respiratory gating will minimize the hot and cold spot artifacts(More)
Four-dimensional (4D) radiotherapy is the explicit inclusion of the temporal changes in anatomy during the imaging, planning, and delivery of radiotherapy. Temporal anatomic changes can occur for many reasons, though the focus of the current investigation is respiration motion for lung tumors. The aim of this study was to develop 4D radiotherapy(More)
Gating is a relatively new and potentially useful therapeutic addition to external beam radiotherapy applied to regions affected by intra-fraction motion. The impact was of gating on treatment margins, image artifacts, and volume and positional accuracy was investigated by CT imaging of sinusoidally moving spheres. The motion of the spheres simulates target(More)