Paul J. Keall

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This document is the report of a task group of the AAPM and has been prepared primarily to advise medical physicists involved in the external-beam radiation therapy of patients with thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic tumors affected by respiratory motion. This report describes the magnitude of respiratory motion, discusses radiotherapy specific problems caused(More)
Four-dimensional (4D) methods strive to achieve highly conformal radiotherapy, particularly for lung and breast tumours, in the presence of respiratory-induced motion of tumours and normal tissues. Four-dimensional radiotherapy accounts for respiratory motion during imaging, planning and radiation delivery, and requires a 4D CT image in which the internal(More)
Task Group 101 of the AAPM has prepared this report for medical physicists, clinicians, and therapists in order to outline the best practice guidelines for the external-beam radiation therapy technique referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The task group report includes a review of the literature to identify reported clinical findings(More)
Adapting radiation delivery to respiratory motion is made possible through corrective action based on real-time feedback of target position during respiration. The advantage of this approach lies with its ability to allow tighter margins around the target while simultaneously following its motion. A significant hurdle to the successful implementation of(More)
The aim of this work was to quantify the ability to predict intrafraction diaphragm motion from an external respiration signal during a course of radiotherapy. The data obtained included diaphragm motion traces from 63 fluoroscopic lung procedures for 5 patients, acquired simultaneously with respiratory motion signals (an infrared camera-based system was(More)
Respiratory motion degrades anatomic position reproducibility during imaging, necessitates larger margins during radiotherapy planning and causes errors during radiation delivery. Computed tomography (CT) scans acquired synchronously with the respiratory signal can be used to reconstruct 4D CT scans, which can be employed for 4D treatment planning to(More)
Intrafraction motion caused by breathing requires increased treatment margins for chest and abdominal radiotherapy and may lead to 'motion artefacts' in dose distributions during intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Technologies such as gated radiotherapy may significantly increase the treatment time, while breath-hold techniques may be poorly tolerated(More)
The effect of dose calculation accuracy during inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was studied in this work. Three dose calculation methods were compared: Monte Carlo, superposition and pencil beam. These algorithms were used to calculate beamlets. which were subsequently used by a simulated annealing algorithm to(More)
In the era of conformal therapy and intensity-modulated therapy, there is an increased desire to raise tumor dose to facilitate improved survival and decrease normal tissue dose to reduce treatment-related complications. Setup accuracy and internal motion limit our ability to reduce margins. Internal motion has both interfraction and intrafraction(More)
Respiratory gating is used to counter the effects of organ motion during radiotherapy for chest tumors. The effects of variations in patient breathing patterns during a single treatment and from day to day are unknown. We evaluated the feasibility of using patient training tools and their effect on the breathing cycle regularity and reproducibility during(More)