Paul J. Jenkins

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The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis plays a fundamental role in the development of the breast. The maintenance of breast tissue architecture is aided by its effect on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. There has been increasing recognition of its role as a major determinant of breast cancer and, more recently, its(More)
Human fertility is ultimately dependent upon the regular pulsatile release of gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) from hypothalamic neurons. The GnRH pulse generator is subject to modulation by a variety of substances, some of which reflect the individual's metabolic status. Endogenous opioids exert a tonic inhibitory effect on GnRH release; this opioid(More)
The cell cycle is regulated by a number of inhibitors, including p27Kip1 (p27), which belongs to the kip1 family. By binding to the cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, it regulates progression of G1 to S phase in the cell cycle. It has been reported that p27 knockout mice develop multiorgan hyperplasia and intermediate lobe pituitary tumors secreting(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the neck strength of school-aged rugby players, and to define the relationship with proxy physical measures with a view to predicting neck strength. METHODS Cross-sectional cohort study involving 382 rugby playing schoolchildren at three Scottish schools (all male, aged between 12 and 18 years). Outcome measures included maximal(More)
Vitamin D prevents proliferation, promotes differentiation, and induces apoptosis of colon cells, and reduced intake or insufficiency of the vitamin in the body are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. Results of previous studies have suggested that mRNA that codes for 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1-alpha-hydroxylase (1 alpha OHase), which converts(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The micro-architecture of bone has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bone strength. Successful operative stabilization of fractures depends on bone strength. We evaluated the osseous micro-architecture and strength of the osteoporotic human femoral head. MATERIAL AND METHODS 6 femoral heads, obtained during(More)
The aim of this study was to further elucidate the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with malignancy and to correlate this with the size of the adrenal glands. Fourteen patients with a variety of malignancies were studied prior to receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. During routine staging computerized tomographic (CT) scans,(More)
OBJECTIVES Collaboration between the orthopaedic and emergency medicine (ED) services has resulted in standardised treatment pathways, leaflet supported discharge and a virtual fracture clinic review. Patients with minor, stable fractures are discharged with no further follow-up arranged. We aimed to examine the time taken to assess and treat these patients(More)