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Floral evolution has often been associated with differences in pollination syndromes. Recently, this conceptual structure has been criticized on the grounds that flowers attract a broader spectrum of visitors than one might expect based on their syndromes and that flowers often diverge without excluding one type of pollinator in favor of another. Despite(More)
Pollen presentation theory (PPT) allows for a re-examination of some classic themes in pollination biology. Here, we outline its implications in the context of bee-and bird-adapted species of Penstemon and Keckiella (Scrophulariaceae). PPT models the optimal schedule of pollen presentation, based on the frequency of visits by pollinators, and the capacities(More)
We investigated the relationships among landscape quality, gene flow, and population genetic structure of fishers (Martes pennanti) in ON, Canada. We used graph theory as an analytical framework considering each landscape as a network node. The 34 nodes were connected by 93 edges. Network structure was characterized by a higher level of clustering than(More)
We present allelematch, an R package, to automate the identification of unique multilocus genotypes in data sets where the number of individuals is unknown, and where genotyping error and missing data may be present. Such conditions commonly occur in noninvasive sampling protocols. Output from the software enables a comparison of unique genotypes and their(More)
BACKGROUND Artificial boundaries on a map occur when the map extent does not cover the entire area of study; edges on the map do not exist on the ground. These artificial boundaries might bias the results of animal dispersal models by creating artificial barriers to movement for model organisms where there are no barriers for real organisms. Here, we(More)
In the clade of Penstemon and segregate genera, pollination syndromes are well defined among the 284 species. Most display combinations of floral characters associated with pollination by Hymenoptera, the ancestral mode of pollination for this clade. Forty-one species present characters associated with hummingbird pollination, although some of these(More)
OBJECTIVES The single nucleotide variations R702W, G908R and L1007fs in the CARD15 gene have been found to be independently associated with Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of these gene variations in Dutch multiple inflammatory bowel disease-affected families, in sporadic inflammatory bowel disease patients and in(More)
Using field, molecular and histological methods, an epizootic, systemic disease causing death within wood frog Rana sylvatica tadpoles and leopard frog Rana pipiens metamorphs at 3 different locations within Southern Ontario, Canada, has been investigated. Our results demonstrated that the probable cause of this disease was a ranavirus. Affected amphibians(More)
Plants that experience variation in pollinator visitation rates or fluctuations in weather conditions may be expected to have evolved homeostatic mechanisms that regulate their nectar offerings, thereby providing a more constant reward to the pollinators. A limited degree of such nectar homeostasis is reported here for Penstemon. First, nectar removal(More)
The Magadi tilapia (Alcolapia grahami, formerly Oreochromis alcalicus grahami) is a remarkable example of teleost life in an extreme environment. Typical conditions include water pH=10, titration alkalinity>300 mM, osmolality=525 mOsm, temperatures ranging from 23 degrees to 42 degrees C, and O(2) levels fluctuating diurnally between extreme hyperoxia and(More)