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OBJECTIVE The cellular substrate of hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that hippocampal interneurons are abnormal in schizophrenia, but that the total number of hippocampal neurons in the pyramidal cell layer is normal. METHODS We collected whole hippocampal specimens of 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 20(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2 (mTORC2) is a multimeric signaling unit that phosphorylates protein kinase B/Akt following hormonal and growth factor stimulation. Defective Akt phosphorylation at the mTORC2-catalyzed Ser473 site has been linked to schizophrenia. While human imaging and animal studies implicate a fundamental role for Akt(More)
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) produces altered mood and hallucinations in humans and binds with high affinity to serotonin-2A (5-HT(2A)) receptors. Although LSD interacts with other receptors, the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors is thought to mediate the hallucinogenic properties of LSD. The goal of this study was to identify the brain sites activated(More)
RATIONALE Hallucinogenic serotonin 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor partial agonists, such as (+ or -)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), induce a frontal cortex-dependent head-twitch response (HTR) in rodents, a behavioral proxy of a hallucinogenic response that is blocked by 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists. In addition to 5-HT(2A)(More)
d-Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), an indoleamine hallucinogen, produces profound alterations in mood, thought, and perception in humans. The brain site(s) that mediates the effects of LSD is currently unknown. In this study, we combine the drug discrimination paradigm with intracerebral microinjections to investigate the anatomical localization of the(More)
Tolerance is defined as a decrease in responsiveness to a drug after repeated administration. Tolerance to the behavioral effects of hallucinogens occurs in humans and animals. In this study, we used drug discrimination to establish a behavioral model of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) tolerance and examined whether tolerance to the stimulus properties of(More)
Serotonin [i.e., 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)]-targeted antidepressants are in wide use for the treatment of mood disorders, although many patients do not show a response or experience unpleasant side effects. Psychostimulants, such as cocaine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (i.e., "ecstasy"), also impact 5-HT signaling. To help dissect the contribution(More)
Activation of 5-hydroxytryptamine2C (5-HT(2C)) receptors by the 5-HT(2) receptor agonist m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) elicits anxiety in humans and anxiety-like behavior in animals. We compared the effects of m-CPP with the anxiogenic GABA(A) receptor inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) on both anxiety-like behavior and(More)
Nonspecific binding is a frequently encountered problem with fluorescent labeling of tissue cultures when labeled with quantum dots. In these studies various cell lines were examined for nonspecific binding. Evidence suggests that nonspecific binding is related to cell type and may be significantly reduced by functionalizing quantum dots with poly(ethylene(More)
CONTEXT Postmortem studies have reported decreased density and decreased gene expression of hippocampal interneurons in bipolar disorder, but neuroimaging studies of hippocampal volume and function have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE To assess hippocampal volume, neuron number, and interneurons in the same specimens of subjects with bipolar disorder and(More)