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In the regression-discontinuity (RD) design, units are assigned to treatment based on whether their value of an observed covariate exceeds a known cuto¤. In this design, local polynomial es-timators are now routinely employed to construct con…dence intervals for treatment e¤ects. The performance of these con…dence intervals in applications, however, may be(More)
Increasing access to safe drinking water and reducing child mortality constitute crucial needs for most developing countries around the world. There is little consensus, however, on how to achieve these goals. One important issue under discussion is whether to increase the participation of the private sector in water provision. Since clean water and sewage(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence about the best methods with which to accelerate progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals is urgently needed. We assessed the effect of performance-based payment of health-care providers (payment for performance; P4P) on use and quality of child and maternal care services in health-care facilities in Rwanda. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Many governments have implemented conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes with the goal of improving options for poor families through interventions in health, nutrition, and education. Families enrolled in CCT programmes receive cash in exchange for complying with certain conditions: preventive health requirements and nutrition(More)
Health care report cards—public disclosure of patient health outcomes at the level of the individual physician or hospital or both—may address important informational asymmetries in markets for health care, but they may also give doctors and hospitals incentives to decline to treat more difficult, severely ill patients. Whether report cards are good for(More)
Loss of a parent is one of the most traumatic events a child can face. If loss of a parent reduces investments in children, it can also have long-lasting implications. This study uses parametric and semi-nonparametric matching techniques to estimate how one human capital investment, school enrollment, is affected by a parent's recent death. We analyze data(More)
This study asks if firms become more productive by learning through exporting. We do so by estimating production functions using a panel dataset of Indonesian manufacturing establishments from 1990 to 1996. In contrast to previous studies of more developed countries, we find strong evidence that firms experience a jump in productivity of about three to five(More)
BACKGROUND Mexico's conditional cash transfer programme, Oportunidades, was started to improve the lives of poor families through interventions in health, nutrition, and education. We investigated the effect of Oportunidades on children almost 10 years after the programme began. METHODS From April, 1998, to October, 1999, low-income communities were(More)