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BACKGROUND High pregnancy rates undermine the conduct and interpretation of HIV prevention trials. We performed this analysis to identify baseline participant characteristics associated with increased risk of pregnancy in recent vaginal microbicide trials. STUDY DESIGN We analyzed the data from four recently completed Phase III trials of candidate(More)
OBJECTIVE We present baseline sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevalence rates from an ongoing intervention trial at Kenyan agricultural sites. METHODS After gaining the cooperation of management, we identified six matched pairs of tea, coffee, and flower plantations and enrolled approximately 160 women at each site. Six intervention sites received an(More)
Barrier contraceptive trials and disease intervention studies often utilize coital diaries to measure sexual exposures: dates and frequency of intercourse, product use, additional or alternative contraceptive use, and menstrual bleeding. The validity of these self-reported data is a matter of debate, but if used, better diary designs are sought. We studied(More)
Previous abdominal surgery has been termed a relative contraindication for laparoscopic sterilization. This study quantifies the relative risks of surgical difficulties, immediate complications, and early follow-up complications/complaints of interval sterilization in women with versus women without previous abdominal surgery (PAS and NPAS groups,(More)
We examined the association between physical activity and bone mineral density (BMD) among 352 perimenopausal women. A personal activity computer was used to estimate the daily energy expenditure on physical activity. BMD was measured by photon absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, midradius, and distal radius. Multiple linear regression, controlling for(More)
International data on sterilized patients collected by the International Fertility Research Program (IFRP) were examined to determine the incidence of uterine perforation due to a sterilization procedure. Data on 16,379 patients who underwent laparoscopic sterilization and 4378 who underwent minilaparotomy sterilization were reported to the IFRP through 18(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this trial was to determine the effectiveness of 1.0% C31G (SAVVY) in preventing male-to-female vaginal transmission of HIV infection among women at high risk. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS This was a Phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants made up to 12 monthly follow-up visits for HIV(More)
Mortality data ascertained from sources other than a death registration system can validate the accuracy of the system, but this information is rarely obtained. Data on 1979 deaths among reproductive age women were collected in the 1981-1983 Reproductive Age Mortality Survey (RAMOS) in the governorate of Menoufia, Egypt, and compared with data on these(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the PrePex device for adult medical male circumcision (MMC) in routine service delivery in Kenya. METHODS We enrolled 427 men ages 18-49 at one fixed and two outreach clinics. Procedures were performed by trained clinical officers and nurses. The first 50 enrollees were scheduled for six(More)