Paul J. Fadel

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Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a noninvasive optical technique that is increasingly used to assess muscle oxygenation during exercise with the assumption that the contribution of skin blood flow to the NIR signal is minor or nonexistent. We tested this assumption in humans by monitoring forearm tissue oxygenation during selective cutaneous vasodilation(More)
The autonomic adjustments to exercise are mediated by central signals from the higher brain (central command) and by a peripheral reflex arising from working skeletal muscle (exercise pressor reflex), with further modulation provided by the arterial baroreflex. Although it is clear that central command, the exercise pressor reflex and the arterial(More)
Escalating evidence indicates that disturbed flow patterns, characterized by the presence of retrograde and oscillatory shear stress, induce a proatherogenic endothelial cell phenotype; however, the mechanisms underlying oscillatory shear profiles in peripheral conduit arteries are not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that acute elevations in(More)
We recently observed a marked increase in brachial artery (BA) diameter during prolonged leg cycling exercise. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that this increase in BA diameter during lower limb exercise is shear stress mediated. Accordingly, we determined whether recapitulation of cycling-induced BA shear rate with forearm(More)
Within the past 20 years numerous animal and human experiments have provided supportive evidence of arterial baroreflex resetting during exercise. In addition, it has been demonstrated that both the feedforward mechanism of central command and the feedback mechanism associated with skeletal muscle afferents (the exercise pressor reflex) play both(More)
Acute leg exercise increases brachial artery retrograde shear rate (SR), while chronic exercise improves vasomotor function. These combined observations are perplexing given the proatherogenic impacts of retrograde shear stress on the vascular endothelium and may be the result of brief protocols used to study acute exercise responses. Therefore, we(More)
There is growing evidence to suggest that many disease states are accompanied by chronic elevations in sympathetic nerve activity. The present review will specifically focus on central sympathetic overactivity and highlight three main areas of interest: 1) the pathological consequences of excessive sympathetic nerve activity; 2) the potential role of(More)
The precise role of the sympathetic nervous system in the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise has been challenging to define in humans, partly because of the limited techniques available for measuring blood flow in active muscle. Recent studies using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to measure changes in tissue oxygenation have provided(More)
There is strong and consistent evidence from in vitro studies that disturbed blood flow produces a proatherogenic vascular endothelial phenotype. However, data from human studies are lacking. To address this, a 220 mm Hg occlusion cuff was placed on the distal forearm of 10 young, healthy men to induce a localized region of disturbed blood flow in the(More)
We sought to quantify the contribution of cardiac output (Q) and total vascular conductance (TVC) to carotid baroreflex-mediated changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the upright seated and supine positions. Acute changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure were evoked using brief 5 s pulses of neck pressure and neck suction (NP/NS) via a simplified(More)