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The present study was designed to characterize respiratory fluctuations in awake, healthy adult humans under resting conditions. For this purpose, we recorded respiratory movements with a strain-gauge pneumograph in 20 subjects. We then used Allan factor, Fano factor, and dispersional analysis to test whether the fluctuations in the number of breaths,(More)
There is growing evidence to suggest that many disease states are accompanied by chronic elevations in sympathetic nerve activity. The present review will specifically focus on central sympathetic overactivity and highlight three main areas of interest: 1) the pathological consequences of excessive sympathetic nerve activity; 2) the potential role of(More)
It is presently unknown whether there are sex differences in the magnitude of blood pressure (BP) responses to baroreceptor perturbation or if the relative contribution of cardiac output (CO) and total vascular conductance (TVC) to baroreflex-mediated changes in BP differs in young women and men. Since sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone is attenuated in(More)
We sought to examine the influence of exercise intensity on carotid baroreflex (CBR) control of heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) at the onset of exercise in humans. To accomplish this, eight subjects performed multiple 1-min bouts of isometric handgrip (HG) exercise at 15, 30, 45 and 60% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), while breathing(More)
Dysfunction of the endothelium is proposed as the primary initiator of atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease, which occurs mainly in medium- to large-sized conduit arteries of the lower extremities (e.g., iliac, femoral, popliteal arteries). In this review article, we propose the novel concept that conduit artery endothelial cell phenotype is(More)
Recent animal studies have reported that exercise pressor reflex (EPR)-mediated increases in blood pressure are exaggerated in hypertensive (HTN) rodents. Whether these findings can be extended to human hypertension remains unclear. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and venous metabolites were measured in normotensive(More)
The arterial baroreflex is fundamental for evoking and maintaining appropriate cardiovascular adjustments to exercise. We sought to investigate how aging influences carotid baroreflex regulation of blood pressure (BP) during dynamic exercise. BP and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded at rest and during leg cycling performed at 50% HR reserve in 15(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is widely used to investigate cerebral oxygenation and/or neural activation during physiological conditions such as exercise. However, NIRS-determined cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) may not necessarily correspond to intracranial blood flow during dynamic exercise. To determine the selectivity of NIRS to assess(More)
For the first time, we obtained direct intra-neural measurements of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients to test the hypothesis that spontaneous resting MSNA is reduced in MS patients compared to age, sex-matched healthy controls. Spontaneous MSNA (microneurography; peroneal nerve), plasma(More)