John J Renger22
Christopher J Winrow20
Anthony L Gotter16
Steven V Fox10
Susan L Garson10
22John J Renger
20Christopher J Winrow
16Anthony L Gotter
10Steven V Fox
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Orexins/hypocretins are key neuropeptides responsible for regulating central arousal and reward circuits. Two receptors respond to orexin signaling, orexin 1 receptor (OX(1)R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX(2)R) with partially overlapping nervous system distributions. Genetic studies suggest orexin receptor antagonists could be therapeutic for insomnia and other(More)
Orexin signaling is essential for normal regulation of arousal and behavioral state control and represents an attractive target for therapeutics combating insomnia. Alternatively termed hypocretins, these neuropeptides were named to reflect sequence similarity to incretins and their potential to promote feeding. Current nomenclature reflects these molecular(More)
Orexin is a key neurotransmitter of central arousal and reward circuits in the CNS. Two receptors respond to orexin signaling, Orexin 1 Receptor (OX1R) and Orexin 2 Receptor (OX2R) with partially overlapping brain distributions. Genetic and pharmacological studies suggest orexin receptor antagonists could provide therapeutic benefit for insomnia and other(More)
Drugs targeting insomnia ideally promote sleep throughout the night, maintain normal sleep architecture, and are devoid of residual effects associated with morning sedation. These features of an ideal compound are not only dependent upon pharmacokinetics, receptor binding kinetics, potency and pharmacodynamic activity, but also upon a compound’s mechanism(More)
Current treatments for insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta), are γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-positive allosteric modulators that carry a number of side effects including the potential to disrupt cognition. In an effort to develop better tolerated medicines, we have identified dual orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonists (DORAs),(More)
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD The orexin neuropeptide system plays a central role in maintaining arousal and wakefulness. It has been demonstrated that small molecule antagonists to the orexin receptors promote sleep in preclinical species and in patients with insomnia. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW This review provides a summary of published patent applications(More)
Silent Night: Antagonism of the orexin (or hypocretin) system has recently been identified as a novel mechanism for the treatment of insomnia. Herein, we describe discovery of a dual (OX(1)R/OX(2)R) orexin receptor antagonist featuring a 1,4-diazepane central constraint that blocks orexin signaling in vivo. In telemetry-implanted rats, oral administration(More)
Dual orexin receptor antagonists (DORAs) induce sleep by blocking orexin 1 and orexin 2 receptor-mediated activities responsible for regulating wakefulness. DORAs represent a potential alternative mechanism to the current standard of care that includes the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor-positive allosteric modulators, eszopiclone and zolpidem. This(More)
Orexin (hypocretin) receptor antagonists stand as a model for the development of targeted CNS small-molecule therapeutics. The identification of mutations in the gene for the orexin 2 receptor responsible for canine narcolepsy, the demonstration of a hypersomnolence phenotype in hypocretin knockout mice and the disruption in orexin signaling in narcoleptic(More)
Insomnia is a common disorder that can be comorbid with other physical and psychological illnesses. Traditional management of insomnia relies on general central nervous system (CNS) suppression using GABA modulators. Many of these agents fail to meet patient needs with respect to sleep onset, maintenance, and next-day residual effects and have issues(More)