Paul J. A. Withers

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Phosphorus (P) concentrations from water quality monitoring at 54 UK river sites across seven major lowland catchment systems are examined in relation to eutrophication risk and to the relative importance of point and diffuse sources. The over-riding evidence indicates that point (effluent) rather than diffuse (agricultural) sources of phosphorus provide(More)
This paper reviews current knowledge on sampling, storage and analysis of phosphorus (P) in river waters. Potential sensitivity of rivers with different physical, chemical and biological characteristics (trophic status, turbidity, flow regime, matrix chemistry) is examined in terms of errors associated with sampling, sample preparation, storage,(More)
The patterns in nitrate and phosphorus sources, loads and concentrations in a groundwater-dominated lowland catchment, the Hampshire Avon, are examined and water quality signatures are used to identify a typology of headwater stream types. The major separations in water quality are linked to geology and groundwater chemistry as modified by the impacts of(More)
This commentary examines an "inconvenient truth" that phosphorus (P)-based nutrient mitigation, long regarded as the key tool in eutrophication management, in many cases has not yet yielded the desired reductions in water quality and nuisance algal growth in rivers and their associated downstream ecosystems. We examine why the water quality and aquatic(More)
Freshwater eutrophication is often accelerated by increased phosphorus (P) inputs, a greater share of which now come from agricultural nonpoint sources than two decades ago. Maintenance of soil P at levels sufficient for crop needs is an essential part of sustainable agriculture. However, in areas of intensive crop and livestock production in Europe and the(More)
Experience with implementing agricultural phosphorus (P) strategies highlights successes and uncertainty over outcomes. We examine case studies from the USA, UK, and Sweden under a gradient of voluntary, litigated, and regulatory settings. In the USA, voluntary strategies are complicated by competing objectives between soil conservation and dissolved P(More)
Stream-bed sediments from three paired catchments, each draining a lower agricultural intensity system and a higher agricultural intensity system, were analysed for (a) total P (TP), (b) bioavailable-P (Resin-P), (c) equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0), and (d) degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS). The influence of agriculture on sediment P was(More)
The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum(More)
The movement of phosphorus (P) in subsurface flow can contribute to losses from agricultural land. This study aims to identify a soil P threshold above which P loss is likely to accelerate as a function of soil and management type. Lysimeters (25 cm i.d. by 30 cm deep) were taken of four soils from agricultural watersheds in Pennsylvania and New York. The(More)
The relationship between soluble and particulate phosphorus was examined for 9 major UK rivers including 26 major tributaries and 68 monitoring points, covering wide-ranging rural and agricultural/urban impacted systems with catchment areas varying from 1 to 6000km(2) scales. Phosphorus concentrations in Soluble Reactive (SRP), Total Dissolved (TDP), Total(More)