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Classic studies have recognized neurons and three glial elements in the central nervous system (CNS) - astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia. The identification of novel glia that specifically express the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) raises the possibility of a fifth element. Until recently, all NG2-expressing glia were considered to be(More)
The environmental science and engineering communities are actively engaged in planning and developing the next generation of large-scale sensor-based observing systems. These systems face two significant challenges: heterogeneity of instrumentation and complexity of data stream processing. Environmental observing systems incorporate instruments across the(More)
One of the popular stories told (and taught) in development circles is how corruption was slashed in Uganda simply by publishing the amount of monthly grants to schools. This paper takes a deeper look at the facts behind the Uganda story and finds that while information did indeed play a critical role, the story is much more complicated than we have been(More)
China's Regulations on Open Government Information introduce a freedom of information style disclosure mechanism across China from 1 May 2008. Despite sincere political commitment, the central government is facing enormous obstacles in ensuring consistent implementation of the regulations nationwide. The center is not providing a strong legal text or clear(More)
In the adult CNS, antibodies to the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) label a large population of glia that have the antigenic phenotype of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC). However, NG2 expressing glia have the morphological phenotype of astrocytes, not OPC. We propose adult NG2 expressing glia are a distinct mature glial type, which we(More)
NG2-glia are a substantial population of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) that can be identified by their specific expression of the NG2 chondroitin sulphate (CSPG). NG2-glia can generate oligodendrocytes, but it is unlikely this is their only function; indeed, they may be multipotent neural stem cells. Moreover, NG2-glia are a highly reactive cell(More)
Lewy-type pathology is a characteristic of a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Thus far, the definitive diagnosis of these dementias can only be confirmed at post-mortem. However, it is known that the loss of smell (anosmia) is an early symptom in patients who develop dementia, and the use of(More)
BACKGROUND The development of disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease is hampered by our lack of understanding of the early pathogenic mechanisms and the lack of early biomarkers and risk factors.We have documented the expression pattern of mTOR regulated genes in the frontal cortex of Alzheimer's disease patients. We have also examined the(More)
Earthquake engineers have traditionally investigated the behavior of structures with either computational simulations or physical experiments. Recently, a new hybrid approach has been proposed that allows tests to be decomposed into independent substructures that can be located at different test facilities, tested separately, and integrated via a(More)
Existing simulation models, with carefully designed elements of a genetic algorithm, automatically create test inputs, eliminating the task of manual creation. A n essential aspect of a high-quality design process is the development of test patterns, or sets of test inputs, that can be applied to the final product or intermediate instantiations to identify(More)