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The Human Metabolome Database (HMDB, http://www.hmdb.ca) is a richly annotated resource that is designed to address the broad needs of biochemists, clinical chemists, physicians, medical geneticists, nutritionists and members of the metabolomics community. Since its first release in 2007, the HMDB has been used to facilitate the research for nearly 100(More)
Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and(More)
By homologous recombination, we have generated mice that lack the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) gene. Neuronal NOS expression and NADPH-diaphorase (NDP) staining are absent in the mutant mice. Very low level residual catalytic activity suggests that other enzymes in the brain may generate nitric oxide. The neurons normally expressing NOS appear(More)
The proposal that nitric oxide (NO) or its reactant products mediate toxicity in brain remains controversial in part because of the use of nonselective agents that block NO formation in neuronal, glial, and vascular compartments. In mutant mice deficient in neuronal NO synthase (NOS) activity, infarct volumes decreased significantly 24 and 72 hours after(More)
In addition to its role in blood vessel and macrophage function, nitric oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter found in high densities in emotion-regulating brain regions. Mice with targeted disruption of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) display grossly normal appearance, locomotor activity, breeding, long-term potentiation and long-term depression. The nNOS- mice are(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), but LTP is normal in mice with a targeted mutation in the neuronal form of NO synthase (nNOS-). LTP was also normal in mice with a targeted mutation in endothelial NOS (eNOS-), but LTP in stratum radiatum of CA1 was significantly reduced in doubly mutant mice (nNOS-/eNOS-).(More)
GAP-43 has been termed a "growth" or "plasticity" protein because it is expressed at high levels in neuronal growth cones during development and during axonal regeneration. By homologous recombination, we generated mice lacking GAP-43. The mice die in the early postnatal period. GAP-43-deficient retinal axons remain trapped in the chiasm for 6 days, unable(More)
In brain, nitric oxide (NO) is considered as a retrograde messenger involved in synaptic plasticity. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether mice lacking the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene are protected from cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. Mice were administered, IP. either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg) for 5 days.(More)
Extensive pharmacological evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) is a crucial transmitter for cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), a long-lasting decrease in efficacy of the synapses from parallel fibers onto Purkinje neurons, triggered by coincident presynaptic activity and postsynaptic depolarization. We now show that LTD cannot be induced in Purkinje(More)
In addition to its functions as a neuronal messenger molecule, nitric oxide (NO) has also been implicated in playing a major role in ischemic damage and glutamate neurotoxicity. Using primary cortical cultures from transgenic neuronal NO synthase (NOS) null (nNOS-) mice, we definitively establish NO as a mediator of NMDA and hypoxic neurotoxicity.(More)