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Morphologic polarity is necessary for chemotaxis of mammalian cells. As a probe of intracellular signals responsible for this asymmetry, the pleckstrin homology domain of the AKT protein kinase (or protein kinase B), tagged with the green fluorescent protein (PHAKT-GFP), was expressed in neutrophils. Upon exposure of cells to chemoattractant, PHAKT-GFP is(More)
Like neutrophilic leukocytes, differentiated HL-60 cells respond to chemoattractant by adopting a polarized morphology, with F-actin in a protruding pseudopod at the leading edge and contractile actin-myosin complexes at the back and sides. Experiments with pharmacological inhibitors, toxins, and mutant proteins show that this polarity depends on divergent,(More)
In gradients of external chemo-attractant, mammalian neutrophilic leukocytes (neutrophils) and Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae adopt a polarized morphology and selectively accumulate lipid products of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases (PI(3)Ks), including PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), at their up-gradient edges; the internal PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) gradient substantially(More)
Luteinizing hormone stimulates testicular Leydig cells to produce testosterone by binding to a receptor that activates the G protein Gs and adenylyl cyclase. Testotoxicosis is a form of precocious puberty in which the Leydig cells secrete testosterone in the absence of luteinizing hormone, often due to constitutive activation of the luteinizing hormone(More)
Transmembrane receptors for hormones, neurotransmitters, light, and odorants mediate their cellular effects by activating heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins). Crystal structures have revealed contact surfaces between G protein subunits, but not the surfaces or molecular mechanism through which Galphabetagamma responds to(More)
We previously characterized LePRK1 and LePRK2, pollen-specific receptor kinases from tomato (Muschietti et al., 1998). Here we identify a similar receptor kinase from maize, ZmPRK1, that is also specifically expressed late in pollen development, and a third pollen receptor kinase from tomato, LePRK3. LePRK3 is less similar to LePRK1 and LePRK2 than either(More)
Although the signals that control neutrophil migration from the blood to sites of infection have been well characterized, little is known about their migration patterns within lymph nodes or the strategies that neutrophils use to find their local sites of action. To address these questions, we used two-photon scanning-laser microscopy to examine neutrophil(More)
The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii can establish persistent infection in the brain of a mammalian host, a standoff that involves the active participation of host CD8 T cells to control infection. CD8 T cells generally protect against intracellular pathogens by local delivery of effector molecules upon recognition of specific pathogen Ags on(More)
The carboxyl terminus of the G protein alpha subunit is a key determinant of the fidelity of receptor activation. We have previously shown that the Gq alpha subunit (alpha q) can be made to respond to alpha i-coupled receptors by replacing its carboxyl terminus with the corresponding alpha i2, alpha o, alpha z residues. We now extend these findings in three(More)
Memory T cells circulate through lymph nodes where they are poised to respond rapidly upon re-exposure to a pathogen; however, the dynamics of memory T cell, antigen-presenting cell, and pathogen interactions during recall responses are largely unknown. We used a mouse model of infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, in(More)