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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy(More)
The fungal vacuole is an extremely complex organelle that is involved in a wide variety of functions. The vacuole not only carries out degradative processes, the role most often ascribed to it, but also is the primary storage site for certain small molecules and biosynthetic precursors such as basic amino acids and polyphosphate, plays a role in(More)
The Vps15 protein kinase and the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) are required for the sorting of soluble hydrolases to the yeast vacuole. Over-production of Vps34p suppresses the growth and vacuolar protein sorting defects associated with vps15 kinase domain mutants, suggesting that Vps15p and Vps34p functionally interact. Subcellular(More)
Protein kinases are important mediators of much of the signal transduction that occurs in eukaryotic cells. Unfortunately, the identification of protein kinase substrates has proven to be a difficult task, and we generally know few, if any, of the physiologically relevant targets of any particular kinase. Here, we describe a sequence-based approach that(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae spore germination is a process in which quiescent, non-dividing spores become competent for mitotic cell division. Using a novel assay for spore uncoating, we found that spore germination was a multi-step process whose nutritional requirements differed from those for mitotic division. Although both processes were controlled by(More)
VPS34 gene function is required for the efficient localization of a variety of vacuolar proteins. We have cloned and sequenced the wild-type VPS34 gene in order to gain a better understanding of the role of its protein product in this intracellular sorting pathway. Interestingly, disruption of the VPS34 locus resulted in a temperature-sensitive growth(More)
Eukaryotic cell proliferation is controlled by specific growth factors and the availability of essential nutrients. If either of these signals is lacking, cells may enter into a specialized nondividing resting state, known as stationary phase or G(0). The entry into such resting states is typically accompanied by a dramatic decrease in the overall growth(More)
Macroautophagy (or autophagy) is a conserved degradative pathway that has been implicated in a number of biological processes, including organismal aging, innate immunity, and the progression of human cancers. This pathway was initially identified as a cellular response to nutrient deprivation and is essential for cell survival during these periods of(More)
The yeast VPS15 gene encodes a novel protein kinase homolog that is required for the sorting of soluble hydrolases to the yeast vacuole. In this study, we extend our previous mutational analysis of the VPS15 gene and show that alterations of specific Gps15p residues, that are highly conserved among all protein kinase molecules, result in the biological(More)