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Influx of Ca(2+) ions through alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors contributes to neuronal damage in stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders such as ALS. The Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA receptors is largely determined by the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit, receptors lacking GluR2 being permeable to Ca(2+)(More)
AIMS Type II diabetes, often associated with abdominal obesity, frequently leads to heart failure. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that supplemental dyslipidaemia and hypertension, as clustered in the metabolic syndrome, aggravate the cardiovascular outcome. The differential impact of type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on left(More)
AIMS Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and still incurable disease, with heart failure as a leading cause of death. The identification of a disease-modifying therapy may require early-initiated and long-term administration, but such type of therapeutic trial is not evident in humans. We have performed such a trial of SNT-MC17/idebenone in the(More)
BACKGROUND Alterations in the balance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Whether their expression is related to interstitial fibrosis or LV dysfunction in patients with chronic pressure overload-induced LV hypertrophy, however, is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
BACKGROUND Ventricular expression of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5), an enzyme responsible for cGMP catabolism, is increased in human right ventricular hypertrophy, but its role in left ventricular (LV) failure remains incompletely understood. We therefore measured LV PDE5 expression in patients with advanced systolic heart failure and characterized LV(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of interleukin (IL)-6 on skeletal muscle function remains the subject of controversy. METHODS AND RESULTS The effects of 7-day subcutaneous administration of recombinant human IL-6 were examined at 3 doses, 50, 100, or 250 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), in rats. Skeletal muscle mass decreased dose-dependently (with increasing dose: in the(More)
RATIONALE Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) are responsible for maintaining the blood system as a result of their self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity. Recently, studies have suggested that HDL cholesterol may inhibit and impaired cholesterol efflux may increase HSPC proliferation and differentiation. OBJECTIVES We hypothesized(More)
BACKGROUND Prosthesis-patient mismatch (P-PtM) after aortic valve replacement results in disturbed valve performance associated with increased pressure gradients. However, it is unknown whether this can be related to future structural valve deterioration (SVD) of the bioprosthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS In 564 patients (mean age, 74+/-5 years) receiving an(More)
Tight blood glucose control with insulin reduces morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. However, the relative impact of maintaining normoglycemia and of glycemia-independent actions of insulin remains unknown. We therefore independently manipulated blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in burn-injured, parentally fed rabbits over 7 days to(More)
BACKGROUND The number of patients with diabetes or the metabolic syndrome reaches epidemic proportions. On top of their diabetic cardiomyopathy, these patients experience frequent and severe cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) insults, which further aggravate their degree of heart failure. Food restriction and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I)(More)