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Influx of Ca(2+) ions through alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors contributes to neuronal damage in stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders such as ALS. The Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA receptors is largely determined by the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit, receptors lacking GluR2 being permeable to Ca(2+)(More)
BACKGROUND Ventricular expression of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5), an enzyme responsible for cGMP catabolism, is increased in human right ventricular hypertrophy, but its role in left ventricular (LV) failure remains incompletely understood. We therefore measured LV PDE5 expression in patients with advanced systolic heart failure and characterized LV(More)
AIMS The aim here is to analyse epidemiology, optimal treatment, and predictors of 6-month mortality in infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS AND RESULTS A prospective observational cohort study included 193 patients with 203 episodes of definite IE by the modified Duke criteria. Thirty-four percent of episodes involved prosthetic valves. Thirty-three(More)
AIMS Type II diabetes, often associated with abdominal obesity, frequently leads to heart failure. Clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that supplemental dyslipidaemia and hypertension, as clustered in the metabolic syndrome, aggravate the cardiovascular outcome. The differential impact of type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on left(More)
BACKGROUND Microvascular endothelium in different organs is specialized to fulfill the particular needs of parenchymal cells. However, specific information about heart capillary endothelial cells (ECs) is lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS Using microarray profiling on freshly isolated ECs from heart, brain, and liver, we revealed a genetic signature for(More)
AIMS Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe and still incurable disease, with heart failure as a leading cause of death. The identification of a disease-modifying therapy may require early-initiated and long-term administration, but such type of therapeutic trial is not evident in humans. We have performed such a trial of SNT-MC17/idebenone in the(More)
BACKGROUND Alterations in the balance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Whether their expression is related to interstitial fibrosis or LV dysfunction in patients with chronic pressure overload-induced LV hypertrophy, however, is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
BACKGROUND Prosthesis-patient mismatch (P-PtM) after aortic valve replacement results in disturbed valve performance associated with increased pressure gradients. However, it is unknown whether this can be related to future structural valve deterioration (SVD) of the bioprosthesis. METHODS AND RESULTS In 564 patients (mean age, 74+/-5 years) receiving an(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of interleukin (IL)-6 on skeletal muscle function remains the subject of controversy. METHODS AND RESULTS The effects of 7-day subcutaneous administration of recombinant human IL-6 were examined at 3 doses, 50, 100, or 250 microg x kg(-1) x d(-1), in rats. Skeletal muscle mass decreased dose-dependently (with increasing dose: in the(More)
RATIONALE Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) are responsible for maintaining the blood system as a result of their self-renewal and multilineage differentiation capacity. Recently, studies have suggested that HDL cholesterol may inhibit and impaired cholesterol efflux may increase HSPC proliferation and differentiation. OBJECTIVES We hypothesized(More)