Paul H. Schultz

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For a sample of 42 countries, I examine firms whose controlling shareholders and top managers are members of national parliaments or governments. I find that this overlap is quite widespread, especially in highly corrupted countries. Connected companies enjoy easier access to debt financing, lower taxation, and stronger market power. These benefits increase(More)
by T. Paul Schultz Wage Gains Associated with Height as a form of Health Human Capital Abstract Height is consulted as a latent indicator of early nutrition and lifetime health status. Height is observed to increase in recent decades in populations where per capita national income has increased and public health activities have grown. Height is determined(More)
Using a database of more than 1.85 million retail investor transactions over 1991– 1996, we show that these trades are systematically correlated—that is, individuals buy (or sell) stocks in concert. Moreover, consistent with noise trader models, we find that systematic retail trading explains return comovements for stocks with high retail concentration(More)
We propose a new and direct measure of investor attention using search frequency in Google (Search Volume Index (SVI)). In a sample of Russell 3000 stocks from 2004 to 2008, we find that SVI (1) is correlated with but different from existing proxies of investor attention; (2) captures investor attention in a more timely fashion and (3) likely measures the(More)
and the many officials at various stock exchanges, regulatory agencies and research institutes that have helped me to gather this information. Most of these sources are listed in Appendix F, along with country-specific information. Any inaccuracies or errors are, of course, entirely my own, and I would be grateful to have them pointed out. There has been a(More)
We study stock holdings and trading behavior of more than 60,000 households and find evidence consistent with dividend clienteles. Retail investor stock holdings indicate a preference for dividend yield that increases with age and decreases with income, consistent with age and tax clienteles, respectively. Trading patterns reinforce this evidence: Older,(More)
We investigate the implications of time-varying expected return and volatility on asset allocation in a high-dimensional setting. We propose a DFMSV model that allows the first two moments of returns to vary over time for a large number of assets. We then evaluate the economic significance of the DFMSV model by examining the performance of various dynamic(More)
This study shows that U.S. individual investors hold under-diversified portfolios, where the level of under-diversification is greater among younger, low-income, less-educated, and lesssophisticated investors. The level of under-diversification is also correlated with investment choices that are consistent with over-confidence, trend-following behavior, and(More)
SOES bandits are individual investors who use Nasdaq’s Small Order Execution System (SOES) for day trading. Their average profit per trade is small, but they trade dozens or hundreds of times per week. Bandits usually establish a position before most market-makers have updated their quotes, and lay off the position at favorable prices through Instinet or(More)