Learn More
The US Army successfully developed a live-attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) vaccine, TC-83, in 1961, and subsequently developed a formalin-inactivated vaccine, C-84, in 1974. Initial evaluation of both vaccines was promising, but no long-term safety and immunogenicity data have been reported. This study is the first analysis of the long-term(More)
Renal impairment is common in patients after liver transplantation and is attributable in large part to the use of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based immunosuppression. We sought to determine whether conversion to sirolimus-based immunosuppression was associated with improved renal function. In a single-center, randomized, controlled trial, 30 patients at(More)
Bacillus anthracis spore germination is usually detected in vitro by alterations in spore refractility, heat resistance, and stainability. We developed a more quantitative, sensitive, and semi-automated procedure for detecting germination by using a microtiter kinetic reader for fluorescence spectrophotometry. The procedure was based on the increase in(More)
The toxin-encoding plasmid pX01 and capsule-associated plasmid pX02 are required for full virulence of Bacillus anthracis in some animals. However, the non-toxigenic pX01-cured derivatives of certain anthrax strains are not completely attenuated for mice, and their virulence is strain-dependent. The strain-related differences were partially associated with(More)
Animal species differ in their resistance both to infection by Bacillus anthracis and to anthrax toxin. A mouse model was developed to study the basis of the host differences and the pathogenesis of infection. When mice were infected with the virulent B. anthracis strain Vollum 1B, low 50% lethal dose (LD50) values (5 to 30 spores) were found for all 10(More)
The efficacy of a licensed human anthrax vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA)) was tested in guinea pigs, rabbits, and rhesus macaques against spore challenge by Bacillus anthracis isolates of diverse geographical origin. Initially, groups of Hartley guinea pigs were vaccinated at 0 and 4 weeks with AVA, then challenged intramuscularly at 10 weeks with(More)
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus causes serious and fatal disease in animals and man. To protect personnel who work with RVF virus in the laboratory, or troops who may be exposed to this virus, the US Army successfully developed an improved version of inactivated RVF vaccine, TSI-GSD-200. From early 1986 to late 1997, 598 at-risk workers at the US Army Medical(More)
Rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus presented clinical disease syndromes similar to human cases of RVF. All 17 infected monkeys had high-titered viremias but disease ranged from clinically inapparent to death. Three (18%) RVF virus-infected monkeys developed signs of hemorrhagic fever characterized by epistaxis,(More)
BACKGROUND Sirolimus is unlicensed for use in liver transplantation because of concerns over safety, particularly in regard to hepatic artery thrombosis and excess mortality. However, sirolimus offers potential advantages over calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression, relating to its renal sparing and antiproliferative properties. METHODS A review(More)