Paul H Gibbs

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A serological correlate of vaccine-induced immunity was identified in the rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. Animals were inoculated intramuscularly at 0 and 4 weeks with varying doses of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) ranging from a human dose to a 1:256 dilution in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). At 6 and 10 weeks, both the quantitative(More)
Bacillus anthracis spore germination is usually detected in vitro by alterations in spore refractility, heat resistance, and stainability. We developed a more quantitative, sensitive, and semi-automated procedure for detecting germination by using a microtiter kinetic reader for fluorescence spectrophotometry. The procedure was based on the increase in(More)
Rhesus monkeys inoculated intravenously with Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus presented clinical disease syndromes similar to human cases of RVF. All 17 infected monkeys had high-titered viremias but disease ranged from clinically inapparent to death. Three (18%) RVF virus-infected monkeys developed signs of hemorrhagic fever characterized by epistaxis,(More)
The Hawkesbury-Nepean River is a regulated coastal river in New South Wales, Australia. Between March 1992 and March 1993, the freshwater portion of the river was inhabited by a taxonomically rich (total: 116 taxa) and dense (annual mean community density: up to 1024 animals l-1) microzooplankton community, comparable to that in some of the large regulated(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor prognosis with limited therapeutic options. We propose that local immune responses in patients with HCC are held in check by tumor-infiltrating CD4(+)CD25(+) T-regulatory lymphocytes (T(reg) cells), which suppress the activity and proliferation of effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. The phenotype and cell cycle(More)
Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus causes serious and fatal disease in animals and man. To protect personnel who work with RVF virus in the laboratory, or troops who may be exposed to this virus, the US Army successfully developed an improved version of inactivated RVF vaccine, TSI-GSD-200. From early 1986 to late 1997, 598 at-risk workers at the US Army Medical(More)
Two investigational vaccines, TC-83 (live-attenuated) and C-84 (formalin-inactivated), are currently available to immunize at-risk individuals against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE). Ideally, such vaccines should protect against both the natural mosquito-borne route of infection and from aerosol, the most common route of laboratory infection.(More)
The US Army successfully developed a live-attenuated Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE) vaccine, TC-83, in 1961, and subsequently developed a formalin-inactivated vaccine, C-84, in 1974. Initial evaluation of both vaccines was promising, but no long-term safety and immunogenicity data have been reported. This study is the first analysis of the long-term(More)
This study is focused on the search for targets and criteria for the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products, such as juices, nectars, pastes, purees, concentrates, jams, jellies, etc. First, an overview of pasteurization is presented and then, frequently used targets for pasteurization processes are reviewed Enzymes(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatic vascular exclusion allows the performance of major hepatic resections with minimal intraoperative blood loss. We have previously shown that normothermic ischemia can be tolerated by a healthy liver for up to 90 minutes, and this period is increased to 4 hours if the liver is cooled to 4 degrees C using University of Wisconsin solution. (More)