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Elicitation is a key task for subjectivist Bayesians. While skeptics hold that it cannot (or perhaps should not) be done, in practice it brings statisticians closer to their clients and subject-matter-expert colleagues. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art, reflecting the experience of statisticians informed by the fruits of a long line of psychological(More)
Frequentist methods are available for comparison of a patient's test score (or score difference) to a control or normative sample; these methods also provide a point estimate of the percentage of the population that would obtain a more extreme score (or score difference) and, for some problems, an accompanying interval estimate (i.e., confidence limits) on(More)
In contrast to the careful consideration given to the issue of what we can infer from dissociations in single-case studies, the more basic question of how we decide whether a dissociation is present has been relatively neglected. Proposals are made for fully operational definitions of a deficit, classical and strong dissociations, and double dissociations.(More)
Performance on some neuropsychological tests is best expressed as an intra-individual measure of association (such as a parametric or non-parametric correlation coefficient or the slope of a regression line). Examples of the use of intra-individual measures of association (IIMAs) include the quantification of performance on tests designed to assess temporal(More)
Five inferential methods employed in single-case studies to compare a case to controls are examined; all of these make use of a t-distribution. It is shown that three of these ostensibly different methods are in fact strictly equivalent and are not fit for purpose; they are associated with grossly inflated Type I errors (these exceed even the error rate(More)
Payne and Jones (1957) presented a useful formula for estimating the abnormality of differences between an individual's scores on two tests. Extending earlier work by Sokal and Rohlf (1995) and Crawford and Howell (in press), we developed a modified paired samples t test as an alternative to this formula. Unlike the Payne and Jones formula, the new method(More)
Testing for the presence of a deficit by comparing a case to controls is a fundamental feature of many neuropsychological single-case studies. Monte Carlo simulation was employed to study the statistical power of two competing approaches to this task. The power to detect a large deficit was low to moderate for a method proposed by Crawford and Howell (1998;(More)
In England and Wales, a large-scale multiple statistical surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation for nearly two decades. This system uses a robust quasi-Poisson regression algorithm to identify abberrances in weekly counts of isolates reported to the Health Protection Agency. In this paper, we review the performance of the(More)
Mycroft, Mitchell, and Kay (2002) have criticised existing inferential methods (e.g., Crawford & Howell, 1998) for comparing a single case with a control sample and propose that such comparisons be made using a modified ANOVA. It is argued that the assumptions made by Mycroft et al. are questionable and, even if they held, would not invalidate Crawford and(More)