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Neuropsychologists often need to estimate the abnormality of an individual patient's test score, or test score discrepancies, when the normative or control sample against which the patient is compared is modest in size. Crawford and Howell [The Clinical Neuropsychologist 12 (1998) 482] and Crawford et al. [Journal of Clinical and Experimental(More)
Elicitation is a key task for subjectivist Bayesians. While skeptics hold that it cannot (or perhaps should not) be done, in practice it brings statisticians closer to their clients and subject-matter-expert colleagues. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art, reflecting the experience of statisticians informed by the fruits of a long line of psychological(More)
The conventional criteria for a classical dissociation in single-case studies require that a patient be impaired on one task and within normal limits on another. J. R. Crawford and P. H. Garthwaite (2005) proposed an additional criterion, namely, that the patient's (standardized) difference on the two tasks should differ from the distribution of differences(More)
Performance on some neuropsychological tests is best expressed as an intra-individual measure of association (such as a parametric or non-parametric correlation coefficient or the slope of a regression line). Examples of the use of intra-individual measures of association (IIMAs) include the quantification of performance on tests designed to assess temporal(More)
We consider the problem of intra-opus pattern discovery, that is, the task of discovering patterns of a specified type within a piece of music. A music analyst undertook this task for works by Domenico Scarlattti and Johann Sebas-tian Bach, forming a benchmark of 'target' patterns. The performance of two existing algorithms and one of our own creation,(More)
In contrast to the careful consideration given to the issue of what we can infer from dissociations in single-case studies, the more basic question of how we decide whether a dissociation is present has been relatively neglected. Proposals are made for fully operational definitions of a deficit, classical and strong dissociations, and double dissociations.(More)
Testing for the presence of a deficit by comparing a case to controls is a fundamental feature of many neuropsychological single-case studies. Monte Carlo simulation was employed to study the statistical power of two competing approaches to this task. The power to detect a large deficit was low to moderate for a method proposed by Crawford and Howell (1998;(More)
Existing inferential methods of testing for a deficit or dissociation in the single case are extended to allow researchers to control for the effects of covariates. The new (bayesian) methods provide a significance test, point and interval estimates of the effect size for the difference between the case and controls, and point and interval estimates of the(More)
Five inferential methods employed in single-case studies to compare a case to controls are examined; all of these make use of a t-distribution. It is shown that three of these ostensibly different methods are in fact strictly equivalent and are not fit for purpose; they are associated with grossly inflated Type I errors (these exceed even the error rate(More)
Stylistic composition is a creative musical activity, in which students as well as renowned composers write according to the style of another composer or period. We describe and evaluate two computational models of stylistic composition, called Racchman-Oct2010 and Racchmaninof-Oct2010. The former is a constrained Markov model and the latter embeds this(More)