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In studying the genomes of extinct species, two principal limitations are typically the small quantities of endogenous ancient DNA and its degraded condition, even though products of up to 1,600 base pairs (bp) have been amplified in rare cases. Using small overlapping polymerase chain reaction products, longer stretches of sequences or even whole(More)
BACKGROUND Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae) have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods. RESULTS We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete(More)
We have devised a simple method for ordering markers on a chromosome and determining the distances between them. It uses haploid equivalents of DNA and the polymerase chain reaction, hence 'happy mapping'. Our approach is analogous to classical linkage mapping; we replace its two essential elements, chromosome breakage and segregation, by in vitro(More)
Copy number alterations are frequently found in colorectal cancer (CRC), and recurrent gains or losses are likely to correspond to regions harbouring genes that promote or impede carcinogenesis respectively. Gain of chromosome 13q is common in CRC but, because the region of gain is frequently large, identification of the driver gene(s) has hitherto proved(More)
Tetrahymena thermophila is the best studied of the ciliates, a diversified and successful lineage of eukaryotic protists. Mirroring the way in which many metazoans partition their germ line and soma into distinct cell types, ciliates separate germ line and soma into two distinct nuclei in a single cell. The diploid, transcriptionally silent micronucleus(More)
A nested PCR assay (TPILC-PCR) was developed to detect and distinguish between Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B from human faeces by analysis of the triose phosphate isomerase gene (tpi). The assay comprised an initial multiplexed block-based amplification. This was followed by two separate real-time PCR assays specific for assemblages A and B using a(More)
Many methods exist for genotyping--revealing which alleles an individual carries at different genetic loci. A harder problem is haplotyping--determining which alleles lie on each of the two homologous chromosomes in a diploid individual. Conventional approaches to haplotyping require the use of several generations to reconstruct haplotypes within a(More)
Rearrangements of the genome can be detected by microarray methods and massively parallel sequencing, which identify copy-number alterations and breakpoint junctions, but these techniques are poorly suited to reconstructing the long-range organization of rearranged chromosomes, for example, to distinguish between translocations and insertions. The(More)
Eimeria is a genus of parasites in the same phylum (Apicomplexa) as human parasites such as Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and the malaria parasite Plasmodium. As an apicomplexan whose life-cycle involves a single host, Eimeria is a convenient model for understanding this group of organisms. Although the genomes of the Apicomplexa are diverse, that of Eimeria(More)
The term 'field cancerization' is used to describe an epithelial surface that has a propensity to develop cancerous lesions, and in the case of the aerodigestive tract this is often as a result of chronic exposure to carcinogens in cigarette smoke 1, 2. The clinical endpoint is the development of multiple tumours, either simultaneously or sequentially in(More)