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An assay that uses heminested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for the detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis on the basis of polymorphism in the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene was developed. This assay was evaluated with DNA extracted from purified parasite material, bacterial cultures, whole human feces containing G.(More)
The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid(More)
The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum is an intestinal parasite that affects healthy humans and animals, and causes an unrelenting infection in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. We report the complete genome sequence of C. parvum, type II isolate. Genome analysis identifies extremely streamlined metabolic pathways and a reliance on the(More)
In the human immune system, antibodies with high affinities for antigen are created in two stages. A diverse primary repertoire of antibody structures is produced by the combinatorial rearrangement of germline V gene segments and antibodies are selected from this repertoire by binding to the antigen. Their affinities are then improved by somatic(More)
In studying the genomes of extinct species, two principal limitations are typically the small quantities of endogenous ancient DNA and its degraded condition, even though products of up to 1,600 base pairs (bp) have been amplified in rare cases. Using small overlapping polymerase chain reaction products, longer stretches of sequences or even whole(More)
The variable domains of an antibody consist of a beta-sheet framework with hypervariable regions (or complementarity-determining regions--CDRs) which fashion the antigen-binding site. Here we attempted to determine whether the antigen-binding site could be transplanted from one framework to another by grafting the CDRs. We substituted the CDRs from the(More)
Cryptosporidium species cause acute gastroenteritis and diarrhoea worldwide. They are members of the Apicomplexa--protozoan pathogens that invade host cells by using a specialized apical complex and are usually transmitted by an invertebrate vector or intermediate host. In contrast to other Apicomplexans, Cryptosporidium is transmitted by ingestion of(More)
We have devised a simple method for ordering markers on a chromosome and determining the distances between them. It uses haploid equivalents of DNA and the polymerase chain reaction, hence 'happy mapping'. Our approach is analogous to classical linkage mapping; we replace its two essential elements, chromosome breakage and segregation, by in vitro(More)
The genome of the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum comprises six chromosomes. Here we report the sequence of the largest, chromosome 2, which at 8 megabases (Mb) represents about 25% of the genome. Despite an A + T content of nearly 80%, the chromosome codes for 2,799 predicted protein coding genes and 73 transfer RNA genes. This gene density, about(More)
Since the sequencing of the first two chromosomes of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, there has been a concerted effort to sequence and assemble the entire genome of this organism. Here we report the sequence of chromosomes 1, 3-9 and 13 of P. falciparum clone 3D7--these chromosomes account for approximately 55% of the total genome. We describe(More)