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The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum is an intestinal parasite that affects healthy humans and animals, and causes an unrelenting infection in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. We report the complete genome sequence of C. parvum, type II isolate. Genome analysis identifies extremely streamlined metabolic pathways and a reliance on the(More)
In studying the genomes of extinct species, two principal limitations are typically the small quantities of endogenous ancient DNA and its degraded condition, even though products of up to 1,600 base pairs (bp) have been amplified in rare cases. Using small overlapping polymerase chain reaction products, longer stretches of sequences or even whole(More)
BACKGROUND Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae) have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods. RESULTS We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete(More)
The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid(More)
Cryptosporidium species cause acute gastroenteritis and diarrhoea worldwide. They are members of the Apicomplexa--protozoan pathogens that invade host cells by using a specialized apical complex and are usually transmitted by an invertebrate vector or intermediate host. In contrast to other Apicomplexans, Cryptosporidium is transmitted by ingestion of(More)
A nested PCR assay (TPILC-PCR) was developed to detect and distinguish between Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B from human faeces by analysis of the triose phosphate isomerase gene (tpi). The assay comprised an initial multiplexed block-based amplification. This was followed by two separate real-time PCR assays specific for assemblages A and B using a(More)
The genome of the lower eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum comprises six chromosomes. Here we report the sequence of the largest, chromosome 2, which at 8 megabases (Mb) represents about 25% of the genome. Despite an A + T content of nearly 80%, the chromosome codes for 2,799 predicted protein coding genes and 73 transfer RNA genes. This gene density, about(More)
The variable domains of an antibody consist of a beta-sheet framework with hypervariable regions (or complementarity-determining regions--CDRs) which fashion the antigen-binding site. Here we attempted to determine whether the antigen-binding site could be transplanted from one framework to another by grafting the CDRs. We substituted the CDRs from the(More)
We have devised a simple method for ordering markers on a chromosome and determining the distances between them. It uses haploid equivalents of DNA and the polymerase chain reaction, hence 'happy mapping'. Our approach is analogous to classical linkage mapping; we replace its two essential elements, chromosome breakage and segregation, by in vitro(More)
DNA not only transmits genetic information but can also serve as a versatile supramolecular scaffold. Here we describe a strategy for the synthesis and replication of DNA displaying hundreds of substituents using directed evolution of polymerase function by short-patch compartmentalized self-replication (spCSR) and the widely used fluorescent dye labeled(More)