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The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid(More)
An assay that uses heminested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for the detection and genotyping of Giardia duodenalis on the basis of polymorphism in the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene was developed. This assay was evaluated with DNA extracted from purified parasite material, bacterial cultures, whole human feces containing G.(More)
The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum is an intestinal parasite that affects healthy humans and animals, and causes an unrelenting infection in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. We report the complete genome sequence of C. parvum, type II isolate. Genome analysis identifies extremely streamlined metabolic pathways and a reliance on the(More)
In the human immune system, antibodies with high affinities for antigen are created in two stages. A diverse primary repertoire of antibody structures is produced by the combinatorial rearrangement of germline V gene segments and antibodies are selected from this repertoire by binding to the antigen. Their affinities are then improved by somatic(More)
In studying the genomes of extinct species, two principal limitations are typically the small quantities of endogenous ancient DNA and its degraded condition, even though products of up to 1,600 base pairs (bp) have been amplified in rare cases. Using small overlapping polymerase chain reaction products, longer stretches of sequences or even whole(More)
Since the sequencing of the first two chromosomes of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, there has been a concerted effort to sequence and assemble the entire genome of this organism. Here we report the sequence of chromosomes 1, 3-9 and 13 of P. falciparum clone 3D7--these chromosomes account for approximately 55% of the total genome. We describe(More)
BACKGROUND Despite being one of the most studied families within the Carnivora, the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the bear family (Ursidae) have long remained unclear. Widely divergent topologies have been suggested based on various data sets and methods. RESULTS We present a fully resolved phylogeny for ursids based on ten complete(More)
Eimeria tenella is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects the intestinal tracts of domestic fowl and causes coccidiosis, a serious and sometimes lethal enteritis. Eimeria falls in the same phylum (Apicomplexa) as several human and animal parasites such as Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and the malaria parasite, Plasmodium. Here we report the(More)
Cryptosporidium species cause acute gastroenteritis and diarrhoea worldwide. They are members of the Apicomplexa--protozoan pathogens that invade host cells by using a specialized apical complex and are usually transmitted by an invertebrate vector or intermediate host. In contrast to other Apicomplexans, Cryptosporidium is transmitted by ingestion of(More)
The efficient delivery of personalized medicine is a key goal of healthcare over the next decade. It is likely that PCR strategies will play an important role in the delivery of this goal. Digital PCR has certain advantages over more traditional PCR protocols. In this article we will discuss the current status of digital PCR, highlighting its advantages and(More)