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AIMS Empirical tests of relationships between alcohol outlets and violence are generally conducted with statistical controls for correlates related to characteristics of people and the places in which they live. Crime potentials theory asserts that certain subpopulations are disposed to participate in criminal activities (population potentials) and certain(More)
This paper presents the findings and lessons from a community prevention trial involving three experimental communities in the United States to reduce alcohol-involved trauma. The paper provides recommendations for other community prevention efforts. Effectiveness was demonstrated by: (a) 78 fewer alcohol-involved traffic crashes as a result of the Drinking(More)
CONTEXT High-risk alcohol consumption patterns, such as binge drinking and drinking before driving, and underage drinking may be linked to traffic crashes and violent assaults in community settings. OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of community-based environmental interventions in reducing the rate of high-risk drinking and alcohol-related motor vehicle(More)
BACKGROUND Previous assessments of empirical relationships between alcohol outlets and rates of interpersonal violence have been conducted using cross-sectional spatial data, data collected across small geographic units such as Census Tracts and zip codes. These assessments demonstrate that the availability of alcohol, measured by the number and types of(More)
AIMS This paper extends a prior analysis of drinking patterns to consider the influence of non-economic variables on the selection of drinking locations. DESIGN Using data from a general population telephone survey conducted as a part of the Community Trials Project, Tobit models are estimated to determine the influence of background demographic(More)
The 5-year "Preventing Alcohol Trauma: A Community Trial" project in the United States was designed to reduce alcohol-involved injuries and death in three experimental communities. The project consisted of five mutually reinforcing components: (1) Community Mobilization Component to develop community organization and support, (2) Responsible Beverage(More)
Two perspectives guide examinations of alcohol-related injury; studies of drinking behaviors which characterize the activities in which drinkers participate, and studies of drinking patterns which characterize individuals' likelihoods of intoxication. This paper presents a study of self-reported drinking and driving using both perspectives. A theoretical(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Social ecological theories suggest that greater community alcohol availability and individual drinker characteristics should jointly affect drinking patterns and the use of drinking contexts. We assessed relationships of demographic and personality characteristics of individual drinkers and environmental characteristics at the city-level(More)
The concentration of delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol in marijuana available in the United States has increased by 250% since investigations of the effects of marijuana on short-term memory first appeared in scientific journals. Moreover, previous investigations of short-term memory in long-term marijuana smokers involved adults only. We evaluated the(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examines whether the association between violence and population density is moderated by the presence of alcohol outlets, both within a target geographical area and in adjacent geographical areas. The effect of sociodemographic variables on violence is also examined controlling for spatial confounding. METHOD Zip code areas (N = 766)(More)