Paul Gruenewald

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BACKGROUND Previous assessments of empirical relationships between alcohol outlets and rates of interpersonal violence have been conducted using cross-sectional spatial data, data collected across small geographic units such as Census Tracts and zip codes. These assessments demonstrate that the availability of alcohol, measured by the number and types of(More)
BACKGROUND A number of studies using cross-sectional data have demonstrated that the availability of alcohol, measured by the number and types of alcohol outlets, is directly related to numerous measures associated with drinking and driving. The current study contributes the first observation of relationships over time between alcohol outlet densities on(More)
BACKGROUND This paper examines neighborhood, outlet, and server characteristics related to successful purchases of alcohol by intoxicated patrons and underage drinkers at alcohol establishments. It is hypothesized that outlets in commercial areas near to other premises, with poor exterior maintenance, much advertising, and inexperienced youthful servers(More)
This paper reports on an analysis of geographically based data from four communities conducted to evaluate relationships between measures of the physical availability of alcohol and rates of driving after drinking. From a review of the literature, it was expected that rates of driving after drinking would be directly related to the availability of alcohol(More)
AIMS Empirical tests of relationships between alcohol outlets and violence are generally conducted with statistical controls for correlates related to characteristics of people and the places in which they live. Crime potentials theory asserts that certain subpopulations are disposed to participate in criminal activities (population potentials) and certain(More)
The concentration of delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol in marijuana available in the United States has increased by 250% since investigations of the effects of marijuana on short-term memory first appeared in scientific journals. Moreover, previous investigations of short-term memory in long-term marijuana smokers involved adults only. We evaluated the(More)
CONTEXT High-risk alcohol consumption patterns, such as binge drinking and drinking before driving, and underage drinking may be linked to traffic crashes and violent assaults in community settings. OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of community-based environmental interventions in reducing the rate of high-risk drinking and alcohol-related motor vehicle(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examined the relationship between neighborhood social structure, alcohol outlet densities and violent crime in Camden, New Jersey. METHOD Data pertaining to neighborhood social structure, violent crime and alcohol density were collected for 98 block groups, and analyzed using bivariate, multivariate and spatial analyses. RESULTS(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examines the degree to which the physical availability of alcohol as measured by outlet densities is related to self-reported individual drinking patterns, preferred drinking location, as well as both driving after drinking (DAD) and driving while intoxicated (DWI). METHOD Data from 7,826 drinkers were obtained from a(More)
OBJECTIVE This study examines whether the association between violence and population density is moderated by the presence of alcohol outlets, both within a target geographical area and in adjacent geographical areas. The effect of sociodemographic variables on violence is also examined controlling for spatial confounding. METHOD Zip code areas (N = 766)(More)