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The concentration of delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol in marijuana available in the United States has increased by 250% since investigations of the effects of marijuana on short-term memory first appeared in scientific journals. Moreover, previous investigations of short-term memory in long-term marijuana smokers involved adults only. We evaluated the(More)
Using aggregate-level data, this study performed cross-sectional analyses on all 1,628 populated California zip code areas and longitudinal analyses on 581 consistently defined zip codes over six years (1995-2000), relating place and population characteristics of these areas to rates of hospital discharges for amphetamine dependence/abuse using linear(More)
AIMS This paper considers statistical relationships often observed between densities of bars and pubs and rates of violence as suggested by two general approaches: (i) social influence and (ii) social selection. METHODS A stratified sample of 36 zip code areas in California was identified as having 'high', 'medium' and 'low' densities of bars and pubs.(More)
Past studies consistently indicate measurable local associations between alcohol distribution and the incidence of violence. These results, coupled with measurements of spatial correlation, reveal the importance of spatial analysis in the study of the interaction of alcohol and violence. While studies increasingly incorporate spatial correlation among model(More)
Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent(More)
OBJECTIVE Estimated test-retest reliabilities of self-re- ported drinking measures are affected by the extent to which respondents provide consistent reports of their own behaviors (reliability) and the extent to which the behaviors reported are stable over time (stability). Unstable behaviors may be reliably reported but correlate poorly over time. This(More)
1 Abstract Relapse, the recurrence of a disorder following a symptomatic remission, is a frequent outcome in substance abuse disorders. Some of our prior results suggested that relapse, in the context of abusive drinking, is likely an " unbeatable " force as long as recovered individuals continue to interact in the environments that lead to and/or reinforce(More)
Drinking in bars contributes to numerous public health problems, including violence and motor vehicle crashes. In order to formulate effective preventive interventions it is essential to identify which specific features of bar environments are related to increased risks. Unobtrusive ethnographic observations are one approach that has been used to(More)
Location-based sampling is a method to obtain samples of people within ecological contexts relevant to specific public health outcomes. Random selection increases generalizability; however, in some circumstances (such as surveying bar patrons), recruitment conditions increase risks of sample bias. We attempted to recruit representative samples of bars and(More)