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Circumventricular organs (CVOs), small structures bordering the ventricular spaces in the midline of the brain, have common morphological and endocrine-like characteristics that distinguish them from the rest of the nervous system. Among their unique features are cellular contacts with two fluid phases--blood and cerebrospinal fluid--and neural connections(More)
From recent morphological and physiological studies of capillaries, I shall review four new or revised concepts about blood-tissue communication in the subfornical organ (SFO) and area postrema (AP). First, the capillary systems of SFO and AP exhibit subregional differentiation correlated topographically with cytoarchitecture, densities of immunoreactivity(More)
1. SUMMARY In the past decade educators have developed a myriad of tools to help novices learn to program. Different tools emerge as new features or combinations of features are employed. In this panel we consider the features of recent tools that have garnered significant interest in the computer science education community. These including narrative tools(More)
Endothelin (ET) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide that may have pathophysiological roles in the microcirculation of the peripheral nervous system. We examined the local action of epineurial ET-1 on sciatic endoneurial blood flow using serial hydrogen clearance measurements in anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated Sprague-Dawley rats. In separate rats,(More)
A concept inventory is a standardized assessment tool intended to evaluate a student’s understanding of the core concepts of a topic. In order to create a concept inventory it is necessary to accurately identify these core concepts. A Delphi process is a structured multi-step process that uses a group of experts to achieve a consensus opinion. We(More)
Physiological and morphometric studies were conducted on the microvascular endothelium of four individual cerebral structures having different neural activities--the inferior colliculus, sensorimotor cortex (both gray matter regions), genu of the corpus callosum (white matter), and the subfornical organ (a circumventricular organ) of rats. The physiological(More)
We examined responses of pial arteries and veins in situ to noradrenergic stimuli in the presence of histamine. Electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerves and perivascular microapplication of norepinephrine in mock cerebrospinal fluid produced constriction of arteries and veins in anesthetized cats. During simultaneous perivascular injection of histamine,(More)
Nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), an aggregate of several individual nuclear groups in the dorsal medulla oblongata, is involved in virtually all autonomic functions as the first synaptic site in the brain for many peripheral viscerosomatic inputs. We found morphological evidence that dorsocaudal subregions of rat NTS (approximately 800 microns caudal from(More)