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The price elasticity of demand for prescription drugs is a crucial parameter of interest in designing pharmaceutical benefit plans. Estimating the elasticity using micro-data, however, is challenging because insurance coverage that includes deductibles, co-insurance provisions and maximum expenditure limits create a non-linear price schedule, making price(More)
INTRODUCTION Federal legislation outlined in the Medical Care Act of 1966 and the Canada Health Act of 1984 stipulates that Canadian provincial governments are to administer insurance programs for "medically necessary" services provided by hospitals and physicians. The legislation did not mandate provincial government coverage for prescription drugs taken(More)
The propensity score--the probability of exposure to a specific treatment conditional on observed variables--is increasingly being used in observational studies. Creating strata in which subjects are matched on the propensity score allows one to balance measured variables between treated and untreated subjects. There is an ongoing controversy in the(More)
Propensity score methods are increasingly being used to estimate causal treatment effects in the medical literature. Conditioning on the propensity score results in unbiased estimation of the expected difference in observed responses to two treatments. The degree to which conditioning on the propensity score introduces bias into the estimation of the(More)
Using recent Canadian health survey data, we investigated the effect of socioeconomic status on patients' use of dental services and dental insurance coverage. Our results point to an important socioeconomic gradient in the use of dental services. The probability of receiving any dental care over the course of a year increases markedly with dental(More)
BACKGROUND The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3) is a comprehensive, compact health status classification and health state preference system. The HUI3 system has been included in 4 Canadian population health surveys and numerous clinical trials. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the construct validity of the HUI3 for the measurement of health-related quality of(More)
OBJECTIVES We aimed to systematically review and assess published estimates of the cost of developing new drugs. METHODS We sought English language research articles containing original estimates of the cost of drug development that were published from 1980 to 2009, inclusive. We searched seven databases and used citation tracing and expert referral to(More)
BACKGROUND Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity), and to make specific recommendations for(More)
We show the estimable rational addiction model tends to yield spurious evidence in favor of the rational addiction hypothesis when aggregate data are used. Direct application of the canonical model yields results seemingly indicative that non-addictive commodities such as milk, eggs, and oranges are rationally addictive. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates(More)
BACKGROUND Reference-based pricing limits reimbursement for a group of drugs that are deemed therapeutically equivalent to the cost of the lowest-priced product within that group. We estimated the effect of reference-based pricing of nitrate drugs used for long-term prophylaxis on prescribing of and expenditures on nitrates and other anti-anginal drugs(More)