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We used chicken retinospheroids (RS) to study the nuclear architecture of vertebrate cells in a three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system. The results showed that the different neuronal cell types of RS displayed an extreme form of radial nuclear organization. Chromatin was arranged into distinct radial zones which became already visible after DAPI(More)
Cholinesterases present homologies with some cell adhesion molecules; however, it is unclear whether and how they perform adhesive functions. Here, we provide the first direct evidence showing that neurite growth in vitro from various neuronal tissues of the chick embryo can be modified by some, but not all, anticholinesterase agents. By quantifying the(More)
The relationship between both DNA and RNA metabolism and the nerve growth factor (betaNGF)-induced differentiation of PC12 cells was investigated. Cells remained in log phase growth for 4 days after exposure to betaNGF. DNA synthesis was similarly unaffected by betaNGF during this time. Thereafter, a gradual decrease in DNA synthesis was observed. In(More)
By applying double-staining procedures that combine cholinesterase histochemistry (acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase, respectively) as indicators of neuronal and myotomal tissue differentiation on longitudinal sections, together with detection of motor axons with antibodies to G4 antigen, we here describe the spatiotemporal expression of all components of(More)
Müller cells are astrocyte-like radial glia cells which are formed exclusively in the retina. Here we present evidence that Müller cells are crucially involved in the development of the retina's architecture and circuitry. There is increasing evidence that Müller cells are present from the very early beginning of retinogenesis. We postulate the "gradual(More)
Organophosphate (OP) compounds exert inhibition on cholinesterase (ChE) activity by irreversibly binding to the catalytic site of the enzymes. For this reason, they are employed as insecticides for agricultural, gardening and indoor pest control. The biological function of the ChE enzymes is well known and has been studied since the beginning of the XXth(More)
After approaching the outer surface of the neuroepithelium, postmitotic cell bodies abruptly start to synthesize acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Their easy histochemical detection allows us to trace sensitively spatiotemporal patterns of differentiation processes of the chicken nervous system. To investigate the relationship between postmitotic AChE production(More)
Here we present novel information on non-classical functions of cholinesterases and on a cross-talk linking the two enzymes AChE and BChE. The first part of the article is focussed on the regulation of ChEs and the effects acquired when one of the proteins is knocked down (siRNA for BChE, AChE knock-out mouse). In the second part evidence is presented(More)
A central function of chicken photoreceptors is the rhythmic synthesis of the neurohormone melatonin; however, it is unclear how they can achieve--already before hatching (i.e. without light exposure)--a circadian pacemaker system. Here we studied melatonin synthesis and secretion in rosetted spheroids, which are de novo histotypic spheres, re-aggregated(More)
We have used Lucifer Yellow for histological tracing of displaced amacrine cells within the ganglion cell layer (GCL) during the embryonic development of the chicken retina. Incubating whole eyes in the dye leads to bright staining of all displaced amacrine cells, whereas ganglion cells and glial cells are not stained. A subpopulation of cells of the inner(More)