Paul Gokhale

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We have observed karyotypic changes involving the gain of chromosome 17q in three independent human embryonic stem (hES) cell lines on five independent occasions. A gain of chromosome 12 was seen occasionally. This implies that increased dosage of chromosome 17q and 12 gene(s) provides a selective advantage for the propagation of undifferentiated hES cells.(More)
OCT4 is a master regulator of self-renewal in embryonic stem cells and can potentially encode two spliced variants, designated OCT4A and OCT4B. We have examined the expression pattern of these OCT4 isoforms in various human pluripotent and nonpluripotent cells. Our data revealed that whereas OCT4A expression is restricted to embryonic stem (ES) and(More)
The International Stem Cell Initiative characterized 59 human embryonic stem cell lines from 17 laboratories worldwide. Despite diverse genotypes and different techniques used for derivation and maintenance, all lines exhibited similar expression patterns for several markers of human embryonic stem cells. They expressed the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and(More)
We have used RNA interference (RNAi) to downregulate beta2-microglobulin and Oct4 in human embryonal carcinoma (hEC) cells and embryonic stem (hES) cells, demonstrating that RNAi is an effective tool for regulating specific gene activity in these human stem cells. The knockdown of Oct4 but not beta2-microglobulin expression in both EC and ES cells resulted(More)
Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) lines vary in their characteristics and behaviour not only because they are derived from genetically outbred populations, but also because they may undergo progressive adaptation upon long-term culture in vitro. Such adaptation may reflect selection of variants with altered propensity for survival and retention of an(More)
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of teratocarcinomas, and the malignant counterparts of embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos, whether human or mouse. On prolonged culture in vitro, human ES cells acquire karyotypic changes that are also seen in human EC cells. They also 'adapt',(More)
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells offer substantial opportunities for providing well-defined differentiated cells for drug discovery, toxicology, and regenerative medicine, but the development of efficient techniques for their large-scale culture under defined conditions, and for controlling and directing their differentiation, presents a substantial(More)
The International Stem Cell Initiative analyzed 125 human embryonic stem (ES) cell lines and 11 induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell lines, from 38 laboratories worldwide, for genetic changes occurring during culture. Most lines were analyzed at an early and late passage. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed that they included(More)
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their inherent capacity to self-renew and give rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. In vivo, however, hippocampal NSCs do not generate oligodendrocytes for reasons that have remained enigmatic. Here, we report that deletion of Drosha in adult dentate gyrus NSCs activates oligodendrogenesis and(More)
Substantial advances in the biology of human embryonic stem (ES) cells, and the technology for working with them, have been made over the past 10 years. Regulatory frameworks for their study are well developed, although some countries remain particularly restrictive. Markers and criteria for characterising human ES cells are also generally agreed, and(More)