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We have observed karyotypic changes involving the gain of chromosome 17q in three independent human embryonic stem (hES) cell lines on five independent occasions. A gain of chromosome 12 was seen occasionally. This implies that increased dosage of chromosome 17q and 12 gene(s) provides a selective advantage for the propagation of undifferentiated hES cells.(More)
Human embryonic stem cell (HESC) lines vary in their characteristics and behaviour not only because they are derived from genetically outbred populations, but also because they may undergo progressive adaptation upon long-term culture in vitro. Such adaptation may reflect selection of variants with altered propensity for survival and retention of an(More)
The International Stem Cell Initiative characterized 59 human embryonic stem cell lines from 17 laboratories worldwide. Despite diverse genotypes and different techniques used for derivation and maintenance, all lines exhibited similar expression patterns for several markers of human embryonic stem cells. They expressed the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and(More)
Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells are the stem cells of teratocarcinomas, and the malignant counterparts of embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocyst-stage embryos, whether human or mouse. On prolonged culture in vitro, human ES cells acquire karyotypic changes that are also seen in human EC cells. They also 'adapt',(More)
We have used RNA interference (RNAi) to downregulate beta2-microglobulin and Oct4 in human embryonal carcinoma (hEC) cells and embryonic stem (hES) cells, demonstrating that RNAi is an effective tool for regulating specific gene activity in these human stem cells. The knockdown of Oct4 but not beta2-microglobulin expression in both EC and ES cells resulted(More)
Germ cell tumours (GCT) are thought to arise as the result of a defect in early development, probably shortly after arrival of the migrating primordial germ cells (PGC) in the genital ridge when, if in a male genital ridge, the germ cells arrest in mitosis, but in a female genital ridge they enter meiosis. We suggest that dysfunction of the mitotic:meiotic(More)
MOTIVATION Human pluripotent stem cell lines persist in culture as a heterogeneous population of SSEA3 positive and SSEA3 negative cells. Tracking individual stem cells in real time can elucidate the kinetics of cells switching between the SSEA3 positive and negative substates. However, identifying a cell's substate at all time points within a cell lineage(More)
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) are defined by their inherent capacity to self-renew and give rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. In vivo, however, hippocampal NSCs do not generate oligodendrocytes for reasons that have remained enigmatic. Here, we report that deletion of Drosha in adult dentate gyrus NSCs activates oligodendrogenesis and(More)
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells offer substantial opportunities for providing well-defined differentiated cells for drug discovery, toxicology, and regenerative medicine, but the development of efficient techniques for their large-scale culture under defined conditions, and for controlling and directing their differentiation, presents a substantial(More)