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Aimee Chin provided critical insights and excellent research assistance. I am particularly grateful to Shahid Khandker, the World Bank, and the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies for making their household-level data set accessible. The paper was completed while I was a National Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. The views(More)
BACKGROUND Many governments have implemented conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes with the goal of improving options for poor families through interventions in health, nutrition, and education. Families enrolled in CCT programmes receive cash in exchange for complying with certain conditions: preventive health requirements and nutrition(More)
This study asks if firms become more productive by learning through exporting. We do so by estimating production functions using a panel dataset of Indonesian manufacturing establishments from 1990 to 1996. In contrast to previous studies of more developed countries, we find strong evidence that firms experience a jump in productivity of about three to five(More)
BACKGROUND Evidence about the best methods with which to accelerate progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals is urgently needed. We assessed the effect of performance-based payment of health-care providers (payment for performance; P4P) on use and quality of child and maternal care services in health-care facilities in Rwanda. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Mexico's conditional cash transfer programme, Oportunidades, was started to improve the lives of poor families through interventions in health, nutrition, and education. We investigated the effect of Oportunidades on children almost 10 years after the programme began. METHODS From April, 1998, to October, 1999, low-income communities were(More)
Managers use internal competition to motivate worker e¤ort, yet I present a simple economic model suggesting that the bene…ts of competition depend critically on workers' relative abilities— large di¤erences in skill may reduce competitors' e¤orts. This paper uses panel data from professional golfers and …nds that the presence of a superstar in a rank-order(More)
Mexico's compensatory education program provides extra resources to primary schools that enroll disadvantaged students in highly disadvantaged rural communities. One of the most important components of the program is the school-based management intervention known as AGEs (Apoyo a la Gestión Escolar or School Management Support). The impact of the AGEs is(More)
This paper examines the effect of industrialization on social capital in Indonesia during 1985 to 1997 using repeated cross-sections of nationally representative surveys. We analyze a rich set of social capital measures including multiple measures of voluntary associational activity, levels of trust and informal cooperation, and family outcomes. There are(More)
We investigate whether capital market imperfections constrain investment during an emerging market financial crisis. Both large currency devaluations and banking sector failures characterize recent crises. Although a currency devaluation should increase exporters' competitiveness and investment, a failing banking system may limit credit to these firms.(More)
This paper is the third in the Child Development Series. The first paper showed that more than 200 million children under 5 years of age in developing countries do not reach their developmental potential. The second paper identified four well-documented risks: stunting, iodine deficiency, iron deficiency anaemia, and inadequate cognitive stimulation, plus(More)