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Since the discovery of its role in the CNS, glutamate, together with its involvement in signalling at synapses, has been the subject of a vast amount of research. More recently, it has become clear that glutamate signalling is also functional in non-neuronal tissues and occurs in sites as diverse as bone, pancreas and skin. These findings raise the(More)
Through their broad differentiation potential, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are candidates for a range of therapeutic applications, but the precise signaling pathways that determine their differentiated fate are not fully understood. Evidence is emerging that developmental signaling cues may be important in regulating stem cell self-renewal and(More)
Reports implicating Wnt signalling in the regulation of bone mass have prompted widespread interest in the use of Wnt mimetics for the treatment of skeletal disorders. To date much of this work has focused on their anabolic effects acting on cells of the osteoblast lineage. In this study we provide evidence that Wnts also regulate osteoclast formation and(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation along the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages and have potential applications in a range of therapies. MSCs can be cultured as monolayers on tissue culture plastic, but there are indications that they lose cell-specific properties with time in vitro and so poorly(More)
We compared the growth and differentiation characteristics of hair follicle-derived dermal stem cells with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Follicular dermal cells were isolated from whisker hairs of Wistar rats and bone marrow MSCs were isolated from femora of the same animals. The adherent hair follicle dermal cells showed a fibroblastic(More)
Organophosphate (OP) compounds exert inhibition on cholinesterase (ChE) activity by irreversibly binding to the catalytic site of the enzymes. For this reason, they are employed as insecticides for agricultural, gardening and indoor pest control. The biological function of the ChE enzymes is well known and has been studied since the beginning of the XXth(More)
Phenotypic alterations in keratinocyte behavior are essential for maintaining epidermal integrity during growth and wound repair and rely on co-ordinated cell signaling events. Numerous growth factors and cytokines have been shown to be instrumental in guiding such changes in keratinocyte activity; here we provide evidence which proposes a novel epidermal(More)
Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) possess certain stem celllike properties and can differentiate to adopt a number of mesenchymal phenotypes. BMSCs are usually investigated in vitro as homogeneous single-cell suspensions; however, these preparations lose much of their osteogenic capacity. Using the fibroblastic colony-forming unit assay, we have compared(More)
Although best known for its role in cholinergic signalling, a substantial body of evidence suggests that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has multiple biological functions. Previously, we and others identified AChE expression in areas of bone that lacked expression of other neuronal proteins. More specifically, we identified AChE expression at sites of new bone(More)
There is a clinical need for new bone replacement materials that combine long implant life with complete integration and appropriate mechanical properties. We have used human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to populate porous apatite-wollastonite (A-W) glass-ceramic scaffolds produced by the layer manufacturing technique, selective laser sintering, to create(More)