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BACKGROUND Increasing drug resistance limits the choice of efficacious chemotherapy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Africa. Amodiaquine still retains efficacy against P falciparum in many African countries. We assessed the safety, treatment efficacy, and effect on gametocyte carriage of adding artesunate to amodiaquine in three randomised trials in(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) requires at least six months of treatment. If treatment is incomplete, patients may not be cured and drug resistance may develop. Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) is a specific strategy, endorsed by the World Health Organization, to improve adherence by requiring health workers, community volunteers or family members to observe(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. The WHO state this will improve nutritional status, haemoglobin, and cognition and thus will improve health, intellect, and school attendance. Consequently, it is claimed that school(More)
BACKGROUND Addition of artemisinin derivatives to existing drug regimens for malaria could reduce treatment failure and transmission potential. We assessed the evidence for this hypothesis from randomised controlled trials. METHODS We undertook a meta-analysis of individual patients' data from 16 randomised trials (n=5948) that studied the effects of the(More)
M ultidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is on the increase, with several Eastern European countries having a prevalence of more than ten percent [1]. This resistance means that patients may not be cured with standard regimens even if they adhere well to treatment. An MDR-TB programme requires advanced medical care, infection control measures,(More)
BACKGROUND The SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO) expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for(More)
OBJECTIVES To (a) summarise opinion about what supervision of primary health care is by those advocating it; (b) compare these features with reports describing supervision in practice; and (c) to appraise the evidence of the effects of sector performance. METHODS Systematic review. Reports were classified into three groups and summarised using appropriate(More)
BACKGROUND Pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) help contribute to reducing malaria deaths in Africa, but their efficacy is threatened by insecticide resistance in some malaria mosquito vectors. We therefore assessed the evidence that resistance is attenuating the effect of ITNs on entomological outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS We included(More)
Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults worldwide. Nearly three-quarters of road deaths occur in developing countries and men comprise a mean 80% of casualties. This review summarizes studies on the epidemiology of motor vehicle accidents in developing countries and examines the evidence for association with(More)
IMPORTANCE Intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to control malaria during pregnancy is used in 37 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and 31 of those countries use the standard 2-dose regimen. However, 2 doses may not provide protection during the last 4 to 10 weeks of pregnancy, a pivotal period for fetal weight gain. OBJECTIVE To(More)