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Vertebrate-striated muscle is assumed to owe its remarkable order to the molecular ruler functions of the giant modular signaling proteins, titin and nebulin. It was believed that these two proteins represented unique results of protein evolution in vertebrate muscle. In this paper we report the identification of a third giant protein from vertebrate(More)
The sarcomeric Z-disk, the anchoring plane of thin (actin) filaments, links titin (also called connectin) and actin filaments from opposing sarcomere halves in a lattice connected by alpha-actinin. We demonstrate by protein interaction analysis that two types of titin interactions are involved in the assembly of alpha-actinin into the Z-disk. Titin(More)
The giant muscle protein titin (connectin) is essential in the temporal and spatial control of the assembly of the highly ordered sarcomeres (contractile units) of striated muscle. Here we present the crystal structure of titin's only catalytic domain, an autoregulated serine kinase (titin kinase). The structure shows how the active site is inhibited by a(More)
Spectrin repeats are three-helix bundle structures which occur in a large number of diverse proteins, either as single copies or in tandem arrangements of multiple repeats. They can serve structural purposes, by coordination of cytoskeletal interactions with high spatial precision, as well as a 'switchboard' for interactions with multiple proteins with a(More)
We have determined the crystal structure of the two central repeats in the alpha-actinin rod at 2.5 A resolution. The repeats are connected by a helical linker and form a symmetric, antiparallel dimer in which the repeats are aligned rather than staggered. Using this structure, which reveals the structural principle that governs the architecture of(More)
Biological macromolecules are polymers and therefore the restraints for macromolecular refinement can be subdivided into two sets: restraints that are applied to atoms that all belong to the same monomer and restraints that are associated with the covalent bonds between monomers. The CCP4 template-restraint library contains three types of data entries(More)
The number of macromolecular structures solved and deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) is higher than 40 000. Using this information in macromolecular crystallography (MX) should in principle increase the efficiency of MX structure solution. This paper describes a molecular-replacement pipeline, BALBES, that makes extensive use of this repository. It(More)
α-Actinin is a ubiquitously expressed protein found in numerous actin structures. α-Actinin consists of an actin-binding domain, a rod domain, and a C-terminal domain and functions as a homodimer to cross-link actin filaments. The rod domain determines the distance between cross-linked actin filaments and also serves as an interaction site for several(More)
Developmental defects called phenocopies can be induced by heating Drosophila melanogaster pupae at specific developmental stages. The induction of the defects is thought to be a result of interference with gene expression at some level (Petersen and Mitchell, Dev Biol 1987; 121:335-341, 1987). Here we look at protein turnover in developing 52-hour wings(More)