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Biological macromolecules are polymers and therefore the restraints for macromolecular refinement can be subdivided into two sets: restraints that are applied to atoms that all belong to the same monomer and restraints that are associated with the covalent bonds between monomers. The CCP4 template-restraint library contains three types of data entries(More)
The number of macromolecular structures solved and deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) is higher than 40 000. Using this information in macromolecular crystallography (MX) should in principle increase the efficiency of MX structure solution. This paper describes a molecular-replacement pipeline, BALBES, that makes extensive use of this repository. It(More)
Developmental defects called phenocopies can be induced by heating Drosophila melanogaster pupae at specific developmental stages. The induction of the defects is thought to be a result of interference with gene expression at some level (Petersen and Mitchell, Dev Biol 1987; 121:335-341, 1987). Here we look at protein turnover in developing 52-hour wings(More)
Cellular feedback or 'checkpoint' mechanisms maintain the order of completion of essential, cell-cycle related functions. In the budding yeast, for example, the RAD9 gene product is required to delay progression into mitosis in response to DNA damage. Similarly, in fission yeast, the cdc25 and cdc2 gene products influence the ability of cells to delay(More)
Insect wings lack internal muscles, and the orderly, necessary deformations which they undergo in flight and folding are in part remotely controlled, in part encoded in their structure. This factor is crucial in understanding their complex, extremely varied morphology. Models have proved particularly useful in clarifying the facilitation and control of wing(More)
Acknowledgements I thank my thesis advisor, Dr. Michael Berry, for his support and guidance. I wish to express my deepest appreciation for his patience, direction, and boundless energy. I also thank Dr. Brad Vander Zanden and Dr. David Straight who served on my thesis committee. I also thank my wife, Susan, for her proofreading which gave Dr. Berry a big(More)
In budding yeast, actin disruption prevents nuclear division. This has been explained as activation of a morphogenesis checkpoint monitoring the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton. The checkpoint operates through inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of Cdc28, the budding yeast Cdc2 homolog. Wild-type Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells also arrest before(More)
The G2-M phase transition in eukaryotes is regulated by the synergistic and opposing activities of a cascade of distinct protein kinases and phosphatases. This cascade converges on Cdc2, a serine/threonine protein kinase required for entry into mitosis (reviewed in ref. 1). In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, inactivation of the Cdc2/cyclin B(More)
Finite element analysis is used to model the automatic cambering of the locust hind wing during promotion: the umbrella effect. It was found that the model required a high degree of sophistication before replicating the deformations found in vivo. The model has been validated using experimental data and the deformations recorded both in vivo and ex vivo. It(More)