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The genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease and type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is conferred by genes in the human leukocyte antigen region on the short arm of chromosome 6, but several other genes are presumed to determine disease susceptibility. Among those candidate genes is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) located on(More)
We have used yeast genetics and in vitro protein-protein interaction experiments to explore the possibility that GCN5 (general control nonrepressed protein 5) and several other ADA (alteration/deficiency in activation) adaptor proteins of the multimeric SAGA complex can regulate T3/GRIP1 (glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1) and SRC-1 (steroid(More)
Vitamin D requirements are thought to vary with age, but there is little comparative evidence for this. One goal in establishing a vitamin D requirement is to avoid secondary hyperparathyroidism. We studied 1741 euthyroid, thyroid clinic outpatients without evidence of calcium abnormalities, ranging in age from 19 to 97 yr, whose serum and urine had been(More)
Thyroid cancer is among the fastest growing malignancies; almost fifty-percent of these rapidly increasing incidence tumors are less than or equal to 1cm in size, termed papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). The management of PTMC remains a controversy due to differing natural history of these patients. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is(More)
During a 23-month period, 59 patients were referred for ultrasound (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland because of inadequate orthodox (office) FNAB, a clinically small lesion, or an occult lesion. Seventy percent of the group (41 patients) was referred for surgery, which revealed cancer in 37% of patients, adenoma in 19%,(More)
From July, 1978, to August, 1980, 379 patients with thyroid disease were assessed clinically and underwent scintiscanning and needle aspiration cytology. One hundred fifty-three patients were selected for operation, there were 138 solid lesions and 15 cystic lesions. Selection criteria included clinical factors as well as cytology results. There was a(More)
BACKGROUND For adults, vitamin D intake of 100 mcg (4000 IU)/day is physiologic and safe. The adequate intake (AI) for older adults is 15 mcg (600 IU)/day, but there has been no report focusing on use of this dose. METHODS We compared effects of these doses on biochemical responses and sense of wellbeing in a blinded, randomized trial. In Study 1, 64(More)
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental anomaly that results in significant mortality and morbidity. The underlying etiology is poorly understood. Insights will arise from an understanding of the mechanisms by which the teratogen nitrofen induces CDH in rodent models. In this study, we use in vitro cell assays in conjunction with whole(More)
The implications of a persistent "non-diagnostic" fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) has yet to be defined in patients with a solitary thyroid nodule. Four hundred and eleven patients from 1986 to 1990 with a solitary cold thyroid nodule underwent thyroidectomy, including 92 with a "non-diagnostic" FNAB, despite a minimum of two repeat samples. Pathology(More)
Previous studies have concluded that lymph node metastases do not affect survival rates in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and, therefore, nodal metastasis has not been evaluated as a prognostic factor in recent definitions of risk groups. To determine the significance of nodal disease, we reviewed 227 consecutive patients with differentiated(More)