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The genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease and type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is conferred by genes in the human leukocyte antigen region on the short arm of chromosome 6, but several other genes are presumed to determine disease susceptibility. Among those candidate genes is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) located on(More)
Previous studies have concluded that lymph node metastases do not affect survival rates in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and, therefore, nodal metastasis has not been evaluated as a prognostic factor in recent definitions of risk groups. To determine the significance of nodal disease, we reviewed 227 consecutive patients with differentiated(More)
We have used yeast genetics and in vitro protein-protein interaction experiments to explore the possibility that GCN5 (general control nonrepressed protein 5) and several other ADA (alteration/deficiency in activation) adaptor proteins of the multimeric SAGA complex can regulate T3/GRIP1 (glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein 1) and SRC-1 (steroid(More)
Vitamin D requirements are thought to vary with age, but there is little comparative evidence for this. One goal in establishing a vitamin D requirement is to avoid secondary hyperparathyroidism. We studied 1741 euthyroid, thyroid clinic outpatients without evidence of calcium abnormalities, ranging in age from 19 to 97 yr, whose serum and urine had been(More)
From July, 1978, to August, 1980, 379 patients with thyroid disease were assessed clinically and underwent scintiscanning and needle aspiration cytology. One hundred fifty-three patients were selected for operation, there were 138 solid lesions and 15 cystic lesions. Selection criteria included clinical factors as well as cytology results. There was a(More)
Endocrine autoimmune disorders share susceptibility and resistance factors of the human leukocyte antigen system on the short arm of chromosome 6, but other gene loci also contribute to predisposition and protection. Because the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) alanine-17 encoded by the CTLA4 gene on chromosome 2q33 confers susceptibility to Graves'(More)
Pilot programs for screening of newborn infants for congenital hypothyroidism began in North America in 1972. To date, the five oldest programs (Quebec, Pittsburgh, Toronto, Oregon Regional, and New England Regional) have screened 1,046,362 infants. A total of 277 infants with congenital hypothyroidism have been detected and seven have been missed,(More)
Because particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alleles are the major predisposing factors for type 1 diabetes mellitus (IDDM), we investigated whether they are shared by other endocrine autoimmune diseases. We, therefore, analyzed the HLA DQ genotypes of 171 patients with IDDM, 271 with Graves' disease (GD), 65 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 51 with(More)
Peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases were studied using monoclonal antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens of activated T-cells (Ia+T), as well as their helper-inducer (Ia+TH/I) and suppressor-cytotoxic (Ia+TS/C) subsets, using two-color dye labeling and dual laser activated cell sorter analyses. Compared to(More)
Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) are T-cell mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders with a genetic predisposition. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) molecule is the predominant receptor for B7 on activated T cells and represents a negative regulator for T-cell function. Since the CTLA-4-guanine at position 49 of exon 1(More)