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In three separate experiments using auditory stimuli, subjects detected improbable targets in an on-going train of standard stimuli. In experiment I there were two equally improbable target stimuli, one difficult to discriminate from the standard stimuli and one easy to discriminate. Experiment II investigated the effects of discrimination difficulty using(More)
PURPOSE The 129 strain of mouse carries a mutation in the gene for CP49 (phakinin), an intermediate filament protein thus far demonstrated only in the lens fiber cell. As such, these mice represent naturally occurring mutants of interest in the study of the lens cytoskeleton. However, this strain of mouse is also widely used as a source of embryonic stem(More)
Site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance were used to probe residues 281-304 of human vimentin, a region that has been predicted to be a non-alpha-helical linker and the beginning of coiled-coil domain 2B. Though no direct test of linker structure has ever been made, this region has been hypothesized to be flexible with the(More)
Microglia dynamically prune synaptic contacts during development, and digest waste that accumulates in degeneration and aging. In many neurodegenerative diseases, microglial activation and phagocytosis gradually increase over months or years, with poorly defined initial triggering events. Here, we describe rapid retinal microglial activation in response to(More)
PURPOSE To deduce the function of the lens-specific cytoskeletal structure, the beaded filament, by blocking expression of the fiber cell-specific beaded filament protein CP49. METHODS The first exon of the mouse CP49 gene was deleted by using targeted genomic deletion techniques. Gene deletion was assessed through Southern blot analysis and PCR.(More)
The cDNA coding for calf filensin, a membrane-associated protein of the lens fiber cells, has been cloned and sequenced. The predicted 755-amino acid-long open reading frame shows primary and secondary structure similarity to intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Filensin can be divided into an NH2-terminal domain (head) of 38 amino acids, a middle domain(More)
PURPOSE To define the remodeling of lens fiber cell intermediate filaments (IF) that occurs with both development and differentiation. METHODS Prenatal and postnatal mice were probed for the IF proteins phakosin, filensin, and vimentin, using light microscope immunocytochemical methodology. RESULTS The pattern of vimentin accumulation in elongating(More)
A simple means of establishing a differentiating rat lens culture system is presented which exhibits a high degree of both morphologic and biochemical differentiation along lens-specific lines. Morphological differentiation includes cell enlargement, displacement from the cell substratum, and the loss of intracellular organelles. Biochemical differentiation(More)
PURPOSE To determine the function of the lens fiber cell-specific cytoskeletal protein, filensin, in lens biology. METHODS Targeted genomic deletion was used to delete exon 1 and the transcriptional start site of the filensin gene. Resultant chimeric animals were bred to homozygosity for the mutant allele. These animals were outbred to mice bearing the(More)