Paul G. Crichton

Learn More
The alternative oxidase is a respiratory chain protein found in all higher plants, fungi, non-fermentative yeasts and trypanosomes. Its primary structure suggests that it is a new member of the di-iron carboxylate protein family. Recent sequence analysis indicates an evolutionary relationship between primitive members of this protein family and the(More)
Plant mitochondria contain a non-protonmotive alternative oxidase (AOX) that couples the oxidation of ubiquinol to the complete reduction of oxygen to water. In this paper we review theoretical and experimental studies that have contributed to our current structural and mechanistic understanding of the oxidase and to the clarification of the molecular(More)
Endothermy has facilitated mammalian species radiation, but the sequence of events leading to sustained thermogenesis is debated in multiple evolutionary models. Here we study the Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a phylogenetically ancient, 'protoendothermic' eutherian mammal, in which constantly high body temperatures are reported only during(More)
All higher plants and many fungi contain an alternative oxidase (AOX), which branches from the cytochrome pathway at the level of the quinone pool. In an attempt, first, to distinguish between two proposed structural models of this di-iron protein, and, second, to examine the roles of two highly conserved tyrosine residues, we have expressed an array of(More)
Mitochondrial carriers link biochemical pathways in the mitochondrial matrix and cytosol by transporting metabolites, inorganic ions, nucleotides and cofactors across the mitochondrial inner membrane. Uncoupling proteins that dissipate the proton electrochemical gradient also belong to this protein family. For almost 35 years the general consensus has been(More)
The mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier imports ADP from the cytosol and exports ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. The carrier cycles by an unresolved mechanism between the cytoplasmic state, in which the carrier accepts ADP from the cytoplasm, and the matrix state, in which it accepts ATP from the mitochondrial matrix. Here we present the structures of the(More)
Blue native gel electrophoresis is a popular method for the determination of the oligomeric state of membrane proteins. Studies using this technique have reported that mitochondrial carriers are dimeric (composed of two ∼32-kDa monomers) and, in some cases, can form physiologically relevant associations with other proteins. Here, we have scrutinized the(More)
Mitochondria are incompletely coupled because of proton leaks that short-circuit oxidative phosphorylation. Basal proton leak is unregulated and is associated with the presence (but not catalytic activity) of the adenine nucleotide translocase. Inducible proton leak is regulated and is catalysed by the adenine nucleotide translocase and specific uncoupling(More)
Proton leak pathways uncouple substrate oxidation from ATP synthesis in mitochondria. These pathways are classified as basal (not regulated) or inducible (activated and inhibited). Previously it was found that over half of the basal proton conductance of muscle mitochondria was catalyzed by the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT), an abundant mitochondrial(More)
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) catalyzes fatty acid-activated, purine nucleotide-sensitive proton leak across the mitochondrial inner membrane of brown adipose tissue to produce heat, and could help combat obesity and metabolic disease in humans. Studies over the last 30 years conclude that the protein is a dimer, binding one nucleotide molecule per two(More)