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1. The movement of species from their native ranges to alien environments is a serious threat to biological diversity. The number of individuals involved in an invasion provides a strong theoretical basis for determining the likelihood of establishment of an alien species. 2. Here a field experiment was used to manipulate the critical first stages of the(More)
Phenotypic plasticity may evolve when conditions vary temporally or spatially on a small enough scale. Plasticity is thought to play a central role in the early stages of evolutionary transitions, including major transitions such as those between non-sociality and sociality. The sweat bee Halictus rubicundus is of special interest in this respect, because(More)
Anthropogenic climate change is widely expected to drive species extinct by hampering individual survival and reproduction, by reducing the amount and accessibility of suitable habitat, or by eliminating other organisms that are essential to the species in question. Less well appreciated is the likelihood that climate change will directly disrupt or(More)
Tree snails of the subgenus Amphidromus s. str. are unusual because of the chiral dimorphism that exists in many species, with clockwise (dextrally) and counter-clockwise (sinistrally) coiled individuals co-occurring in the same population. Given that mating in snails is normally impeded when the two partners have opposite coil, positive frequency-dependent(More)
1. Attempts to restore damaged ecosystems usually emphasize structural aspects of biodiversity, such as species richness and abundance. An alternative is to emphasize functional aspects, such as patterns of interaction between species. Pollination is a ubiquitous interaction between plants and animals. Patterns in plant–pollinator interactions can be(More)
Although the vast majority of higher animals are fixed for one chiral morph or another, the cause for this directionality is known in only a few cases. In snails, for example, rare individuals of the opposite coil are unable to mate with individuals of normal coil, so directionality is maintained by frequency-dependent selection. The snail subgenus(More)
The Madeiran land snail genus Heterostoma expresses two forms of genital anatomy. One form (hemiphallic) lacks the distal male organs while the other (euphallic) has fully developed hermaphroditic genitalia. Recent evidence suggests this genital variation characterizes two sibling or incipient species. The spatial ecology and habitat associations of these(More)
describe the diffusion of topics across disciplines?. Online is checked for eligibility for copyright before being made available in the live archive. URLs from City Research Online may be freely distributed and linked to from other web pages. Enquiries If you have any enquiries about any aspect of City Research Online, or if you wish to make contact with(More)
Cephalopod molluscs are among the strongest and most agile invertebrate swimmers, using both undulation of fins and jet propulsion to move through the water and, occasionally, through the air. Among cephalopods, the squids in particular have evolved the most effective means of jet propulsion. 1–3 The mantle is hyperinflated and water is taken in through the(More)
morphs of the tropical land snail Amphidromus martensi show no spatial-scale effects. Á Ecography 29: 477 Á486. Much can be learned about evolution from the identification of those factors maintaining polymorphisms in natural populations. One polymorphism that is only partially understood occurs in land snail species where individuals may coil clockwise or(More)