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Voltage-gated calcium channels support both spontaneous and sound-evoked neurotransmitter release from ribbon synapses of cochlear hair cells. A variety of regulatory mechanisms must cooperate to ensure the appropriate level of activity in the restricted pool of synaptic calcium channels ( approximately 100) available to each synaptic ribbon. One potential(More)
Sensory synapses of the visual and auditory systems must faithfully encode a wide dynamic range of graded signals, and must be capable of sustained transmitter release over long periods of time. Functionally and morphologically, these sensory synapses are unique: their active zones are specialized in several ways for sustained, rapid vesicle exocytosis, but(More)
This review will cover advances in the study of hair cell afferent synaptic function occurring between 2005 and 2008. During this time, capacitance measurements of vesicular fusion have continued to be refined, optical methods have added insights regarding vesicle trafficking, and paired intracellular recordings have established the transfer function of the(More)
The goal of this study was the development of a bioartificial nerve guide to induce axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In this in vitro study, the ability of a novel, 3-dimensional (3D), highly oriented, cross-linked porcine collagen scaffold to promote directed axonal growth has been studied. Collagen nerve guides with longitudinal(More)
The mammalian cochlea is innervated by two classes of sensory neurons. Type I neurons make up 90-95% of the cochlear nerve and contact single inner hair cells to provide acoustic analysis as we know it. In contrast, the far less numerous type II neurons arborize extensively among outer hair cells (OHCs) and supporting cells. Their scarcity and smaller(More)
Modulation of voltage-gated calcium channels was studied in inner hair cells (IHCs) in an ex vivo preparation of the apical turn of the rat organ of Corti. Whole cell voltage clamp in the presence of potassium channel blockers showed inward calcium currents with millisecond activation and deactivation kinetics. When temperature was raised from 22 to 37(More)
Studies of the electrophysiological response to acetylcholine (ACh) in mammalian outer hair cells (OHCs) are hindered by the presence of a large potassium current, I(K,n), most likely mediated by channels containing the KCNQ4 subunit. Since I(K,n) can be blocked by linopirdine, cholinergic effects might be better revealed in the presence of this compound.(More)
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