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Multimodal neuronal maps, combining input from two or more sensory systems, play a key role in the processing of sensory and motor information. For such maps to be of any use, the input from all participating modalities must be calibrated so that a stimulus at a specific spatial location is represented at an unambiguous position in the multimodal map. Here(More)
Acoustic signals transmit information by temporal characteristics and envelope periodicity as well as by their frequency content. Many animals can extract the frequency content of a signal by means of specialized organs such as the cochlea but for the detection and identification of higher-order periodicity, e.g., amplitude modulations, this type of organ(More)
Two groups of snakes possess an infrared detection system that is used to create a heat image of their environment. In this Letter we present an explicit reconstruction model, the "virtual lens," which explains how a snake can overcome the optical limitations of a wide aperture pinhole camera, and how ensuing properties of the receptive fields on the(More)
Interaural time differences allow many animals to perform azimuthal sound localization. Snakes lack a tympanic membrane, external ear openings, and any other superficial indication of an auditory mechanism. They do, however, possess an inner ear with functional cochlea. The oval window is connected through a loss-free osseous lever system to the two, de(More)
In the struggle for survival in a complex and dynamic environment, nature has developed a multitude of sophisticated sensory systems. In order to exploit the information provided by these sensory systems, higher vertebrates reconstruct the spatio-temporal environment from each of the sensory systems they have at their disposal. That is, for each modality(More)
The structure refinement of X-ray powder data using the Rietveld method often results in false minima, i.e. not necessarily the energetically favored result. By introducing force fields as a new type of constraint into the recently developed BGMN program, a fully featured X-ray Rietveld system was created. With the model of bonding and nonbonding(More)
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