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John G Meara*, Andrew J M Leather*, Lars Hagander*, Blake C Alkire, Nivaldo Alonso, Emmanuel A Ameh, Stephen W Bickler, Lesong Conteh, Anna J Dare, Justine Davies, Eunice Dérivois Mérisier, Shenaaz El-Halabi, Paul E Farmer, Atul Gawande, Rowan Gillies, Sarah L M Greenberg, Caris E Grimes, Russell L Gruen, Edna Adan Ismail, Thaim Buya Kamara, Chris Lavy,(More)
Accurate identification of the transmitted virus and sequences evolving from it could be instrumental in elucidating the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and in developing vaccines, drugs, or microbicides to prevent infection. Here we describe an experimental approach to analyze HIV-1 env genes as intact genetic units amplified(More)
For the past several years, diverse and often confused concepts of stigma have been invoked in discussions on AIDS. Many have argued compellingly that AIDS-related stigma acts as a barrier to voluntary counseling and testing. Less compelling are observations regarding the source of stigma or its role in decreasing interest in HIV care. We reviewed these(More)
In much of the world, tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading killer of young adults, in spite of the fact that effective chemotherapy has existed for 50 years. The epidemiology of TB, with its persistence in poor countries and resurgence among the poor of many industrialized nations, causes consternation among those charged with protecting the public's(More)
Substantial inequalities exist in cancer survival rates across countries. In addition to prevention of new cancers by reduction of risk factors, strategies are needed to close the gap between developed and developing countries in cancer survival and the effects of the disease on human suffering. We challenge the public health community's assumption that(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in nearly all low-income countries surveyed, effective therapy has been deemed too expensive and considered not to be feasible outside referral centers. We evaluated the results of community-based therapy for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in a poor section of Lima, Peru. METHODS We(More)
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) presents an increasing threat to global tuberculosis control. Many crucial management issues in MDR-TB treatment remain unanswered. We reviewed the existing scientific research on MDR-TB treatment, which consists entirely of retrospective cohort studies. Although direct comparisons of these studies are impossible,(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that cause untreatable drug-resistant disease are a threat worldwide. We describe the treatment, management, and outcomes of patients with extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in Tomsk, Russia. METHODS We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 608 patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis who had(More)
Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To scale-up a successful HIV/AIDS treatment project and provide comprehensive care to an entire Département du Centre (population 550 000) in rural Haiti, thereby demonstrating that community-based treatment of HIV is feasible and highly effective in resource-limited settings, and serving as a successful model for others to replicate. (More)