Paul Farmer

Eric Hunter6
Jill Gilmour4
Etienne Karita3
6Eric Hunter
4Jill Gilmour
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In a study of 114 epidemiologically linked Zambian transmission pairs, we evaluated the impact of human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I)-associated amino acid polymorphisms, presumed to reflect cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) escape in Gag and Nef of the virus transmitted from the chronically infected donor, on the plasma viral load (VL) in matched recipients(More)
HLA-B*57 is the class I allele most consistently associated with control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, which may be linked to the specific HIV peptides that this allele presents to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and the resulting efficacy of these cellular immune responses. In two HIV C clade-infected populations in South Africa and(More)
Initial studies of 88 transmission pairs in the Zambia Emory HIV Research Project cohort demonstrated that the number of transmitted HLA-B associated polymorphisms in Gag, but not Nef, was negatively correlated to set point viral load (VL) in the newly infected partners. These results suggested that accumulation of CTL escape mutations in Gag might(More)
HIV-AIDS has become the world's leading infectious cause of adult deaths. Approximately 5% of Haiti's adult population is infected with HIV, making it the most affected nation in the western hemisphere[1]. The non-governmental organization Zanmi Lasante (ZL) launched an innovative program 5 years ago to treat HIV patients in the very impoverished central(More)
  • Anatoli Kamali, Matt A. Price, Shabir Lakhi, Etienne Karita, Mubiana Inambao, Eduard J. Sanders +19 others
  • 2015
HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk(More)
  • Sabin Nsanzimana, Krishna Prabhu, Haley McDermott, Etienne Karita, Jamie I. Forrest, Peter Drobac +3 others
  • 2015
The 1994 genocide against the Tutsi destroyed the health system in Rwanda. It is impressive that a small country like Rwanda has advanced its health system to the point of now offering near universal health insurance coverage. Through a series of strategic structural changes to its health system, catalyzed through international assistance, Rwanda has(More)
  • Etienne Karita, Matt A Price, Shabir Lakhi, William Kilembe, Anatoli Kamali, Eugene Ruzagira +10 others
  • 2015
BACKGROUND 2013 WHO guidelines recommend starting ART at CD4+ T-cell counts ≤500 cells/μL. We present the T-cell counts from adult Africans with HIV shortly following transmission to their sexual partners. METHODS HIV-discordant couples in Zambia, Uganda and Rwanda were followed prospectively and received couples counseling and condoms. HIV uninfected(More)
  • Research Showcase, Cmu, Elisabeth Arndt, Lissie Arndt, Caroline Acker, Healthcare—rudolf Virchow +2 others
  • 2015
4 Acknowledgements I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Dr. for her unwavering support, guidance, and inspiration. Dr. Acker embodies the fight for social justice in healthcare through all of her work as a professor, department head, researcher, and social worker. Each time I leave her office my head is filled with invigorating ideas to explore, titles(More)
Overlapping a series of adaptive simple mathematical models can be used for image segmentation or data clustering. This paper presents model based evolutionary optimisation segmentation algorithms that incrementally include additional features to the model. Several artificially created images and real images are used to demonstrate the ability of the(More)